ETYM Latin abscessus a going away, gathering of humors, abscess, from abscessus, p. p. of absedere to go away; ab, abs + cedere to go off, retire. Related to Cede. (Irregular plural: abscesses). Localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue. Collection of pus in the tissues forming in response to infection. Its presence is signaled by pain and inflammation.
ETYM Latin, from Greek anthrax coal, carbuncle. A highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people | SYN: splenic fever. Severe infectious disease of cattle and sheep, communicable to human beings; boil cause by this. Disease of livestock, occasionally transmitted to humans, usually via infected hides and fleeces. It may develop as black skin pustules or severe pneumonia. Treatment is with antibiotics. Vaccination is effective. Anthrax is caused by a bacillus (Bacillus anthracis). In the 17th century, some 60,000 cattle died in a European pandemic known as the Black Bane, thought to have been anthrax. The disease is described by the Roman poet Virgil and may have been the cause of the biblical fifth plague of Egypt.
ETYM Old Eng. blein, bleyn, AS. blęgen; akin to Dan. blegn, Dutch blein; perh. from the same root as Eng. bladder. Related to Bladder. An inflammatory swelling or sore. A boil or blister; sore; blister.
ETYM Cf. Old Eng. blacche in blacchepot blacking pot, akin to black, as bleach is akin to bleak. Related to Black, or cf. Blot a spot. (Irregular plural: blotches). An irregularly shaped spot | SYN: splodge, splotch.
An inflammatory sore.
1 > Something that is botched; mess
2 > Patchwork, hodgepodge
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.
Group of diseases characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells. Cancer (malignant) cells are usually degenerate, capable only of reproducing themselves (tumor formation). Malignant cells tend to spread from their site of origin by traveling through the bloodstream or lymphatic system (see metastasis).
There are more than 100 types of cancer. Some, like lung or bowel cancer, are common; others are rare. The likely causes remain unexplained. Triggering agents (carcinogens) include chemicals such as those found in cigarette smoke, other forms of smoke, asbestos dust, exhaust fumes, and many industrial chemicals. Some viruses can also trigger the cancerous growth of cells (see oncogenes), as can X-rays and radioactivity. Dietary factors are important in some cancers; for example, lack of fiber in the diet may predispose people to bowel cancer and a diet high in animal fats and low in fresh vegetables and fruit increases the risk of breast cancer. Psychological stress may increase the risk of cancer, more so if the person concerned is not able to control the source of the stress.
In some families there is a genetic tendency toward a particular type of cancer. In 1993 researchers isolated the first gene that predisposes individuals to cancer. About 1; in 200 people in the West carry the gene. If the gene mutates, those with the altered gene have a 70% chance of developing colon cancer, and female carriers have a 50% chance of developing cancer of the uterus.
This accounts for an estimated 10% of all colon cancer.
In Sept 1994 a gene that triggers breast cancer was identified. BRCA1 is responsible for almost half the cases of inherited breast cancer, and most cases of ovarian cancer. Women with the gene have an 85% chance of developing breast or ovarian cancer during their lifetime.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized world, yet it is by no means incurable, particularly in the case of certain tumors, including Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, and testicular cancer. Cures are sometimes achieved with specialized treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs, and irradiation, or a combination of all three. Monoclonal antibodies have been used therapeutically against some cancers, with limited success. There is also hope of combining a monoclonal antibody with a drug that will kill the cancer cell to produce a highly specific magic bullet drug. In 1990 it was discovered that the presence in some patients of a particular protein, p-glycoprotein, actively protects the cancer cells from drugs intended to destroy them. If this action can be blocked, the cancer should become far easier to treat. Public health programs are concerned with prevention and early detection.
A US trial commenced 1995 to treat cancer patients with gene therapy. Ten women with breast cancer were injected with a virus genetically engineered to destroy tumors. Up to 1; billion viruses were injected into the chest cavity over a four-day period. Researchers are hopeful of extending life expectancy, rather than providing a total cure.
UK trials began 1995 of a drug designed to check tumor growth and prevent cancer spreading. The drug, called BB-2516, performed well in animal trials. Its manufacturer hopes it will stabilize cancer in humans, enabling sufferers to lead relatively normal lives whilst maintaining dosage.
ETYM Latin carbunculus a little coal, a bright kind of precious stone, a kind of tumor, dim. of carbo coal: cf. French carboncle. Related to Carbon. In medicine, a collection of boils forming an abscess, caused by bacterial infection. It is usually treated with antibiotics.architectural monstrosity or eyesore; red precious stone. Large boil; garnet cut en cabochon. An infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus.
ETYM Old Eng. canker, cancre, AS. cancer (akin to Dutch kanker, OHG chanchar.), from Latin cancer a cancer; or if a native word. Related to also Old Fren. cancre, French chancere, from Latin cancer. Related to cancer, Chancre. An ulceration (especially of the lips or living of the mouth).
A painful shallow ulcer of the mouth that has a grayish-white base surrounded by a reddish inflamed area and is of uncertain cause but is not due to the virus causing herpes simplex — compare cold sore
ETYM Old Fren. festre, Latin fistula a sort of ulcer. Related to Fistula. A sore that has become inflamed and formed pus | SYN: suppurating sore.
ETYM Latin. An abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface | SYN: sinus. Pipe; very deep ulcer; pipelike passage from ulcer to surface or between hollow organs. In medicine, an abnormal pathway developing between adjoining organs or tissues, or leading to the exterior of the body. A fistula developing between the bowel and the bladder, for instance, may give rise to urinary-tract infection by intestinal organisms. Long narrow passage or duct.
ETYM Latin pustula, and pusula: cf. French pustule. A small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus. Pus-containing pimple. pustulant, Medicine producing pustules. Pimple containing pus; lump or wart.
ETYM French ulcčre, Latin ulcus, gen. ulceris, akin to Greek helkos wound. An inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue | SYN: ulceration. Any persistent breach in a body surface (skin or mucous membrane). It may be caused by infection, irritation, or tumor and is often inflamed. Common ulcers include aphthous (mouth), gastric (stomach), duodenal, decubitus ulcers (pressure sores), and those complicating varicose veins. Treatment of ulcers depends on the site. Drugs are the first line of attack against peptic ulcers (those in the digestive tract), though surgery may become necessary. Bleeding stomach ulcers can be repaired without an operation by the use of endoscopy: a flexible fiber-optic tube is passed into the stomach and under direct vision fine instruments are used to repair the tissues. Stomach ulcers are linked to the bacteria Helicobacter pylori found in the stomachs of 60% of adults in the West by the time they are 60. One in six infected with the bacterium develop ulcers. They are twice as common in those with blood type O, which may be because H. pylori attaches itself to the stomach lining by a string of sugar found only in that blood group. The presence of H. pylori in the stomach can be detected by a breathtest devised 1994. The patient swallows a small amount of urea, which is broken down only if the bacteria are present, and shortly afterwards breathes into a device which measures the level of carbon isotopes exhaled.
ETYM AS. wenn; akin to Dutch wen, LG. wenne. (Homonym: when). A benign cyst formed by excretions from a sebaceous gland. Enormously congested city.
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