1 > The state or quality of being recognized or acknowledged
2 > A statement acknowledging something or someone
1 > A statement acknowledging something or someone | SYN: acknowledgement.
2 > An entry in a book or other publication acknowledging the assistance of other persons | SYN: acknowledgement.
ETYM Latin affirmatio: cf. French affirmation.
1 > A judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was correct and should stand.
2 > A solemn declaration that serves the same purpose as an oath (if an oath is objectionable to the person on religious or ethical grounds).
3 > The act of affirming or asserting or stating something | SYN: assertion, statement.
4 > A statement asserting the existence or the truth of something
5 > Law, solemn declaration by person who refuses to take the oath for reasons of conscience.
ETYM Latin approbatio: cf. French approbation. Related to Approve to prove.
1 > Official approval.
2 > Official recognition or approval.
3 > Approval; consent; formal approval.
1 > A feeling of liking something or someone good.
2 > A message expressing a favorable opinion | SYN: commendation.
3 > Acceptance as satisfactory | SYN: favorable reception.
1 > A mark on an article of trade to indicate its origin and authenticity | SYN: hallmark, assay-mark.
2 > Validating the authenticity of something or someone | SYN: certification.
ETYM Cf. French authenticité. Quality of that which is authentic; true and legitimate | SYN: genuineness, legitimacy. In music, a trend initiated in Britain 1970 aiming to reproduce the original conditions of early music performance and instrumentation as a means of rediscovering esthetic terms of reference. It stimulated important practical research in manuscript editing and transcription, instrumentmaking, dance, architectural acoustics, and vocal techniques and encouraged performance of vocal works in the original language. Notable exponents include conductors Raymond Leppard, Christopher Hogwood, Andrew Parrott, and Roger Norrington, David Munrow (woodwind), Anthony Rooley (lute), Jaap Schröder (violin), Emma Kirkby (soprano), and Frans Brüggen (flute).
1 > The act of averring
2 > Something that is averred; affirmation
ETYM French certificat, from Late Lat. certificatus made certain, p. p. of certificare. Related to tify. A document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts | SYN: certification, credential, credentials.
An affirmative exclamation.
Rite practiced by a number of Christian denominations, including Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Orthodox, in which a previously baptized person is admitted to full membership in the church. In Reform Judaism there is often a confirmation service several years after the bar or bat mitzvah (initiation into the congregation). Christian confirmation is believed to give the participant the gift of the Holy Spirit. In the Anglican church it consists in the laying on of hands by a bishop, while in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches the participant is anointed with oil. Except in the Orthodox churches, where infant confirmation is usual, the rite takes place around early adolescence. Until recently a child preparing for confirmation was required to learn by heart a series of questions and answers known as a catechism.
ETYM Cf. French corroboration.
1 > The act of corroborating, strengthening, or confirming; addition of strength; confirmation.
2 > That which corroborates.
A set of information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.
ETYM Cf. French endossement.
1 > A promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books) | SYN: blurb.
2 > A signature that endorses something.
3 > The act of endorsing.
ETYM Cf. Old Fren. establissement, French établissement.
1 > A public or private structure (business or governmental or educational) including buildings and equipment for business or residence.
2 > Any large organization.
3 > Mainstream culture, especially the forces that direct and govern it.
4 > The cognitive process of establishing a valid proof | SYN: validation.
5 > (Ecology) The process by which a plant or animal becomes established in a new habitat | SYN: ecesis.
ETYM Old Eng. grant, graunt, Old Fren. graant, creant, promise, assurance. Related to Grant.
1 > (Law) A transfer of property by deed of conveyance | SYN: assignment.
2 > A right or privilege that has been granted.
3 > Any monetary aid.
4 > The act of providing a subsidy | SYN: subsidization, subsidisation.
Act of indorsing; signature on a document (as in a check or bill); approval, sanction, confirmation (also endorsement)
ETYM Cf. French ratification. Making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it | SYN: confirmation.
ETYM Old Eng. receite, Old Fren. recete, recepte, French recette, from Latin recipere, receptum, to receive. Related to Receive.
1 > Recipe.
2 > An acknowledgment (usually tangible) that payment has been made.
3 > The act or process of receiving.
4 > Something received — usually used in plural.
5 > A writing acknowledging the receiving of goods or money.
ETYM Latin sanctio, from sancire, sanctum to render sacred or inviolable, to fix unalterably: cf. French sanction. Related to Saint.
1 > A mechanism of social control for enforcing a society's standards.
2 > Formal and explicit approval | SYN: countenance, endorsement, warrant, imprimatur.
3 > The act of final authorization | SYN: authority.
Ratification; permission; penalty incurred or reward lost by breaking law.
Economic or military measure taken by a state or number of states to enforce international law. The first use of sanctions was the attempted economic boycott of Italy 1935–36 during the Abyssinian War by the League of Nations.
Other examples of sanctions are the economic boycott of Rhodesia, after its unilateral declaration of independence 1965, by the United Nations (un); measures taken against South Africa on human-rights grounds by the un and other organizations from 1986 (the majority of these were repealed 1993); and the economic boycott of Iraq 1990 in protest over its invasion of Kuwait, following resolutions passed by the un.
In computing, the process of checking that data being input to a computer have been accurately copied from a source document. This may be done visually, by checking the original copy of the data against the copy shown on the VDT screen. A more thorough method is to enter the data twice, using two different keyboard operators, and then to check the two sets of input copies against each other. The checking is normally carried out by the computer itself, any differences between the two copies being reported for correction by one of the the keyboard operators. Where large quantities of data have to be input, a separate machine called a verifier may be used to prepare fully verified tapes or discs for direct input to the main computer.
1 > One who vouches, or gives witness or full attestation, to anything.
2 > A book, paper, or document which serves to vouch the truth of accounts, or to confirm and establish facts of any kind.
3 > A paper or document entitling the bearer to a certain value.
ETYM Old Eng. warant, Old Fren. warant a warrant, a defender, protector, French garant, originally a p. pr. pf German origin, from Old High Germ. weręn to grant, warrant, German gewähren; akin to OFries. wera. Related to Guarantee. An authorization allowing police to perform specified acts.
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