(1893-1991) US dancer, choreographer, teacher, and director. The greatest exponent of modern dance in the US, she developed a distinctive vocabulary of movement, the Graham Technique, now taught worldwide. Her pioneering technique, designed to express inner emotion and intention through dance forms, represented the first real alternative to classical ballet.
Graham founded her own dance school 1927 and started a company with students from the school 1929. She created over 170 works, including Appalachian Spring 1944 (score by Aaron Copland), Clytemnestra 1958, the first full-length modern dance work, and Lucifer 1975. She danced in most of the pieces she choreographed until her retirement from performance in the 1960s. Graham had a major influence on such choreographers in the contemporary dance movement as Robert Cohan, Glen Tetley, Merce Cunningham, Norman Morrice, Paul Taylor, and Robert North.
(1805-1869) Scottish chemist who laid the foundations of physical chemistry (the branch of chemistry concerned with changes in energy during a chemical transformation) by his work on the diffusion of gases and liquids. Graham’s law 1829 states that the diffusion rate of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.
His work on colloids (which have larger particles than true solutions) was equally fundamental; he discovered the principle of dialysis, that colloids can be separated from solutions containing smaller molecules by the differing rates at which they pass through a semipermeable membrane. The human kidney uses the same principle to extract nitrogenous waste.
Graham was born in Glasgow and studied at Glasgow and Edinburgh In 1830, Graham became professor at Anderson's College, Glasgow, moving to University College, London, 1837–54. In 1855, he was appointed Master of the Royal Mint.
(William Franklin) (1918-) US Protestant evangelist, known for the dramatic staging and charismatic eloquence of his preaching. Graham has preached to millions during worldwide crusades and on television, bringing many thousands to conversion to, or renewal of, Christian faith.
Born in Charlotte, North Carolina, he graduated from Wheaton College (Illinois). His first evangelical crusade was Youth for Christ 1949. From then, under the auspices of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association 1950, he conducted worldwide tours. Graham wrote Peace with God 1953, World Aflame 1965, and The Challenge 1969.