engleski leksikon

engleski leksikon

Malaysia
/ məleɪʒə /

imenicageografija

Množina reči Malaysia je Malaysias.

Sinonimi:
Malaya · Malaysia

A country in southeastern Asia on Borneo and the Malay Peninsula; Also called: Malaya.
Country in SE Asia, comprising the Malay Peninsula, bounded N by Thailand, and surrounded E and S by the South China Sea and W by the Strait of Malacca; and the states of Sabah and Sarawak in the N part of the island of Borneo (S Borneo is part of Indonesia).
government
Malaysia is a federation of 13 states: Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Perlis, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, and Trengganu. Each has its own constitution, head of state, and elected assembly, led by a chief minister and cabinet, and legislates on matters outside the federal parliament's sphere.
Under the 1957 constitution, a monarch is elected for five-year terms by, and from among, the hereditary rulers of Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, and Trengganu. The paramount ruler's powers are similar to those of the British monarch, including discretion in the appointment of a prime minister and in granting a dissolution of parliament. Generally, the monarch acts on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet, who wield effective power.
The two-chamber federal legislature or parliament is composed of a 70-member upper house or senate, Dewan Negara, comprising 43 members nominated by the head of state and two members elected by each of the 13 state assemblies for six-year terms, and a house of representatives, Dewan Rakyat, whose 180 members are elected for five-year terms from single-member constituencies by universal suffrage. The senate can only delay bills already approved by the dominant house of representatives, whose majority party or coalition provides the prime minister, who governs with a cabinet selected from parliament.
history
The areas that comprise present-day Malaysia were part of the Buddhist Srivijaya empire in the 9th–14th centuries. This was overthrown by Majapahit, Java's last Hindu kingdom. After this period of Indian influence came the introduction of Islam, and a powerful Muslim empire developed in the area. Its growth was checked by the Portuguese conquest of Malacca 1511. In 1641 the Dutch ousted the Portuguese, and the area came under British control from 1786, with a brief return to Dutch rule 1818–24.
British control
British sovereignty was progressively established from the 1820s and a rubber-and tin-based export economy was developed, with Chinese and Indian laborers being imported. Local state chiefs were allowed to retain considerable political autonomy and in 1826 only Singapore, Penang, and Malacca were incorporated in the Straits Settlements colony. British control was extended to Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, and Selangor 1874, to Johore 1885, and to Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Trengganu between 1910 and 1930. The Federated Malay States was formed 1895. After World War II, with British control being extended over Sarawak, the UK protectorates in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula were unified as the Federation of Malaya crown colony 1948.
Federation of Malaysia
The Federation of Malaysia was formed 1963 by the union of the 11 states of the Federation of Malaya with the British crown colonies of N Borneo (then renamed Sabah) and Sarawak, and Singapore, which seceded from the federation 1965. Since 1966 the 11 states on the Malay Peninsula have been known as West Malaysia, and Sabah and Sarawak as East Malaysia. The two regions are separated by 650 km/400 mi of the South China Sea. The establishment of the federation was opposed by guerrillas backed by Sukarno of Indonesia 1963–66, and the Philippines disputed the sovereignty of East Malaysia 1968 through their claim on Sabah.
Tunku Abdul Rahman was Malaysia's first prime minister 1963–69, and his multiracial style of government was successful until anti-Chinese riots in Kuala Lumpur 1969 prompted the formation of an emergency administration. These riots followed a fall in support for the United Malays' National Organization (UMNO) in the federal election and were indicative of Malay resentment of the economic success of the Chinese business community. They provoked the resignation of Rahman 1970 and the creation by his successor, Tun Abdul Razak, of a broader governing coalition, including previous opposition parties in its ranks.
pro-Malay economic policy
In addition, a new economic policy was launched 1971, with the aim of raising the percentage of ethnic-Malay-owned businesses from 4% to 30% by 1990 and extending the use of pro-Malay (bumiputra) affirmative-action quota systems for university entrance and company employment. During the 1970s Malaysia enjoyed economic growth, but relations with the Chinese community became uneasy later in the decade as a result of the federal government’s refusal to welcome Vietnamese refugees. There has also been a revival of fundamentalist Islam in the west and north.
Dr Mahathir bin Mohamed became the new leader of UMNO and prime minister 1981 and pursued a more narrowly Islamic and Malay strategy than his predecessors. He also launched an ambitious industrialization program, seeking to emulate Japan. He was reelected 1982 and 1986 but encountered opposition from his Malaysian Chinese Association coalition partners, Christian-Muslim conflict in Sabah, and slower economic growth as a result of the fall in world tin, rubber, and palm-oil prices.
new opposition
In 1987, in the wake of worsening Malay-Chinese relations, Mahathir ordered the arrest of more than 100 prominent opposition activists, including the Democratic Action Party (DAP)’s leader Lim Kit Siang, and a tightening of press censorship. These moves precipitated a rift in UMNO, with former premier Rahman and former trade and industry minister Razaleigh Hamzah leaving to form a new multiracial party grouping, Semangat ’46, in 1989. In 1988 a reconstituted UMNO Baru (New UMNO) was set up by Mahathir. The prime minister also announced some relaxation of the 1971 economic policy that favored ethnic Malays—Malay equity ownership having reached only 18% by 1987—as part of a more consensual “Malay unity” program.
foreign relations
Malaysia joined ASEAN 1967 and originally adopted a pro-Western, anticommunist position. While close economic links were developed with Japan and joint ventures encouraged, relations with the communist powers and with Islamic nations were also good.
In Oct 1990 federal and state elections were held. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamed's ruling coalition captured 127 of the 180 national assembly seats. Semangat '46 lost 5 of its 12 seats. However, Islamic (PAS) and Chinese (DAP) party allies polled well locally.
economic growth policy
The pro-Malay economic policy expired Dec 1990 and was replaced by a new program, the “new development policy”, which was less discriminatory against non-Malays and aimed to achieve an eightfold increase (7% a year) in national income by the year 2020. GDP growth during the 1980s averaged 8% a year.
Mahathir bin Mohamed was reelected president of UMNO Baru Oct 1993. During 1994 he temporarily suspended all new trading contracts with the UK after allegations in the British press of an aid-for-arms deal between the two countries in 1988.

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