North Atlantic Treaty Organization
/ ˈnɔːrθ əˈtlæntɪk ˈtriːti ˌɔːrɡənəˈzeɪʃn̩ /
Množina reči North Atlantic Treaty Organization je North Atlantic Treaty Organizations.
NATO · North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) Association set up 1949 to provide for the collective defense of the major W European and North American states against the perceived threat from the USSR. The collapse of communism in eastern Europe from 1990 prompted the most radical review of its policy and defense strategy since its inception. After the E European Warsaw Pact was disbanded 1991, an adjunct to NATO, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, was established, including all the former Soviet republics, with the aim of building greater security in Europe. In July 1992 it was agreed that the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe would in future authorize all NATO’s military responses within Europe.
At the 1994 Brussels summit a “partnership for peace” program was formally launched, inviting former members of the Warsaw Pact and ex-Soviet republics to take part in a wide range of military cooperation arrangements, without the implications of imminent NATO membership. Romania was the first to join, in Jan, followed by Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland; Russia agreed to participate May 1995. By July 1994 the partnership included 12 of the 15 former Soviet republics (Armenia, Belarus, and Tajikistan declined to join), plus Hungary, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, Albania, the Czech Republic, Finland, and Sweden.
Its chief body is the Council of Foreign Ministers (who have representatives in permanent session), and there is an international secretariat in Brussels, Belgium, and also the Military Committee consisting of the Chiefs of Staff. The military headquarters SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe) is in Chičvres, near Mons, Belgium.
Both the Supreme Allied Commanders (Europe and Atlantic) are from the US, but there is also an Allied Commander, Channel (a British admiral). In 1960 a permanent multinational Allied Mobile Force (AMF) was established to move immediately to any NATO country under threat of attack; headquarters in Heidelberg, Germany. France withdrew from the military integration (not the alliance) 1966; Greece withdrew politically but not militarily 1974. In 1980 Turkey was opposed to Greek reentry because of differences over rights in the Aegean Sea. NATO has encountered numerous problems since its inception over such issues as the hegemonial position of the US, the presence in Europe of US nuclear weapons, burden sharing, and standardization of weapons.
In 1990, after a meeting in London, NATO declared that nuclear weapons were “weapons of last resort” rather than “flexible response”, and offered to withdraw all nuclear artillery shells from Europe if the USSR did the same. NATO’s counterpart was the Warsaw Pact, until the abandonment of its military role 1990. In Oct 1991, it was agreed that NATO’s ground-launched and air-delivered nuclear arsenal in Europe would be reduced by 80%. There were also plans for NATO forces to be reduced by up to 30% by the mid-1990s.
President Bush's unilateral reductions in US nuclear arms in Oct 1991 resulted in reductions in NATO arms.
An international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security; Also called: NATO.