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Titian · Tiziano Vecellio

(1490-1576) Painter of the Venetian school; Also called: Tiziano Vecellio.
Anglicized form of Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1487-1576) Italian painter. Active in Venice, he was one of the greatest artists of the High Renaissance. In 1533 he became court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman emperor, whose son Philip II of Spain later became his patron. Titian’s work is richly colored, with inventive composition. He produced a vast number of portraits, religious paintings, and mythological scenes, including Bacchus and Ariadne 1520–23 (National Gallery, London), Venus and Adonis 1554 (Prado, Madrid), and the Pičta about 1575 (Accademia, Venice).
Titian probably studied with Giovanni Bellini but also learned much from Giorgione and seems to have completed some of Giorgione’s unfinished works, such as Sleeping Venus about 1510 (Gemäldegalerie, Dresden). His first great painting is the Assumption of the Virgin 1518 (Church of the Frari, Venice), typically sublime in mood, with upward-thrusting layers of figures. Three large mythologies painted in the next few years for the d’Estes of Ferrara show yet more brilliant use of color, and numerous statuesque figures suggest the influence of Classical art. By the 1530s Titian’s reputation was widespread. His Venus of Urbino 1538 (Uffizi, Florence), with its subtle nuances, was a significant development in the study of the nude.
In the 1540s Titian visited Rome to paint the pope; in Augsburg, Germany, 1548–49 and 1550–51, he painted members of the imperial court. In his later years he produced a series of mythologies for Philip II, notably The Rape of Europa 1562 (Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, Massachusetts). His handling became increasingly free and his palette somber, but his work remained full of drama. He made an impact not just on Venetian painting but on art throughout Europe.

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