/ bərˈkiːnə ˈfɑːsoʊ /
Prevedi Burkina Faso na: nemački
Formerly Upper Volta.
Landlocked country in W Africa, bounded E by Niger, NW and W by Mali, S by Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
The 1991 constitution provides for a 107-member national assembly, Assemblée des Députés Populaires (ADP), elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a president, similarly elected for a seven-year term, renewable only once. The constitution provides for a second chamber, which has not yet been established.
The area known from 1984 as Burkina Faso was invaded in the 11th–13th centuries by the Mossi people, whose powerful warrior kingdoms lasted for over 500 years. In the 1890s it became a province of French West Africa, known as Upper Volta.
In 1958 it became a self-governing republic and in 1960 achieved full independence with Maurice Yaméogo as president. A military coup 1966 removed Yaméogo and installed Col Sangoulé Lamizana as president and prime minister. He suspended the constitution, dissolved the national assembly, banned political activity, and set up a supreme council of the armed forces as the instrument of government.
In 1969 the ban on political activity was lifted, and in 1970 a referendum approved a new constitution, based on civilian rule, which was to come into effect after four years of combined military and civilian government. After disagreements between military and civilian members of the government, General Lamizana announced 1974 a return to army rule and dissolved the national assembly.
In 1977 political activity was allowed again, and a referendum approved a constitution that would create a civilian government. In the 1978 elections the Volta Democratic Union (UDV) won a majority in the national assembly, and Lamizana became president. But a deteriorating economy led to strikes, and a bloodless coup led by Col Zerbo overthrew Lamizana 1980. Zerbo formed a government of national recovery, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the national assembly.
country renamed Burkina Faso
In 1982 Zerbo was ousted, and Maj Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo emerged as leader of a military regime, with Capt Thomas Sankara as prime minister. In 1983 Sankara seized power in another coup, becoming president and ruling through a council of ministers. Opposition members were arrested, the national assembly was dissolved, and a National Revolutionary Council (CNR) set up. In 1984 Sankara announced that the country would be known as Burkina Faso (“land of upright men”), symbolizing a break with its colonial past; his government strengthened ties with Ghana and established links with Benin and Libya. Sankara was killed Oct 1987 in a military coup led by a former close colleague, Capt Blaise Compaoré (1951– ). In April 1989 a restructuring of the ruling political groupings took place, and in Sept 1989 a plot to oust Compaoré was discovered and foiled.
Throughout 1991 Compaoré resisted calls for a national conference attended by all political parties, but a new constitution was approved. He was reelected president Dec 1991, but the unusually large number of abstentions in the election reflected his growing unpopularity. Prompted by widespread unrest, multiparty elections were held May 1992. The ruling FP–Popular Front won a clear majority under its new name the National Convention of Progressive Patriots–Democratic Socialist Party (CNPP–PSD), amid opposition claims of electoral fraud.