/ tʃetʃniə /
Množina reči Chechnya je Chechnyas.
Chechen Republic · Chechenia · Chechnya
Or Chechenia; Breakaway part of the former Russian autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingush on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains; official name Noxcijn Republika Ickeriy from 1994
area 17,300 sq km/6,680 sq mi
industries oil extraction (at one of the largest Russian oil fields); engineering, chemicals, building materials; timber
After decades of resistance, the region was conquered by Russia 1859. It was an autonomous region of the USSR 1922–36 when it was joined to Ingushetia as the Autonomous Republic of Checheno-Ingush.
In Nov 1991, following the seizure of power by General Dzhokhar Dudayev, the region declared its independence. After a brief, unsuccessful attempt to quell the rebellion, Moscow entered into negotiations over the republic's future, and in 1992 Chechnya became an autonomous republic in its own right. Later the same year fighting broke out between forces loyal to Dudayev and antiseparatist opposition forces, backed by Russia. Civil war developed Aug 1994 and in Dec 1994 Russian forces entered Chechnya and bombed the capital. By March 1995 an estimated 40,000 civilians had been killed and 250,000 were refugees. By June 1995 Russian forces had overrun most of the republic's urban centers, forcing the Chechen rebels to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics; around 2,000 people were taken hostage by Chenen rebels, led by Shamil Basayev, in the town of Budennovsk 14 June. Following negotiations between Russian prime minister Chernomyrdin and Basayev for the hostages' release, peace talks began in Grozny. Chechnya's in
dependence has not received international recognition.