/ nɔrwe /
Prevedi Norway na: francuski · nemački
1. A constitutional monarchy in northern Europe; Also called: Norge, Noreg.
2. City in Iowa (USA); zip code 52318.
3. City in Michigan (USA); zip code 49870.
4. Town in South Carolina (USA); zip code 29113.
5. Unincorporated community in Maine (USA).
Country in NW Europe, on the Scandinavian peninsula, bounded E by Sweden, NE by Finland and Russia, S by the North Sea, W by the Atlantic Ocean, and N by the Arctic Ocean.
Norway's constitution dates from 1814. The hereditary monarch is the formal head of state, and the legislature consists of a single-chamber parliament, the Storting. The monarch appoints a prime minister and state council on the basis of support in the Storting, to which they are all responsible. The Storting has 165 members, elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage through a system of proportional representation. Once elected, it divides itself into two parts, a quarter of the members being chosen to form an upper house, the Lagting, and the remainder a lower house, the Odelsting. All legislation must be first introduced in the Odelsting and then passed to the Lagting for approval, amendment, or rejection. Once a bill has had parliamentary approval it must receive the royal assent.
Norway was originally inhabited by the Saami (Lapps) and other nomads and was gradually invaded by Goths. It was ruled by local chieftains until unified by Harald Fairhair (ruled 872–933) as a feudal country. Norway's Vikings raided and settled in many parts of Europe in the 8th–11th centuries. Christianity was introduced by Olaf II in the 11th century; he was defeated 1030 by rebel chiefs backed by Canute, but his son Magnus I regained the throne 1035. Haakon IV (1217–1263) established the authority of the crown over the nobles and the church and made the monarchy hereditary. Denmark and Norway were united by marriage 1380, and in 1397 Norway, Denmark, and Sweden became united under one sovereign. Sweden broke away 1523, but Norway remained under Danish rule until 1814, when it was ceded to Sweden. Norway rebelled, Sweden invaded, and a compromise was reached whereby Norway kept its own parliament but was united with Sweden under a common monarch.
Conflict between the Norwegian parliament and the Swedish crown continued until 1905, when the parliament declared Norway completely independent. This was confirmed by plebiscite, and Prince Carl of Denmark was elected king as Haakon VII. He ruled for 52 years until his death 1957. He was succeeded by his son Olaf V who died 1991 and was in turn succeeded by his only son Harald V.
since World War II.
The experience of German occupation 1940–45 persuaded the Norwegians to abandon their traditional neutral stance and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949, the Nordic Council 1952, and the European Free Trade Association 1960. In 1968 oil was discovered, the first find in the North Sea. Norway was accepted into membership of the European Economic Community 1972, but a referendum held that year rejected the proposal and the application was withdrawn. Its exploitation of North Sea oil and gas resources has given it a higher income per head of population than most of its European neighbors, and during the Cold War it succeeded in maintaining good relations with the USSR without damaging its commitments in the West.
Following a vote of no confidence Oct 1989, Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland resigned and was succeeded by the Conservative Jan P Syse. In Oct 1990 the Syse coalition collapsed and Brundtland returned to power, leading a minority Labour government. In Jan 1992, Norway joined Iceland in defying a worldwide ban on whaling in order to resume its own whaling industry. In Nov Brundtland relinquished leadership of the Labour Party. In the same month, the Norwegian government made a formal application to rejoin the European Community (EC). Brundtland was reelected for a further term Sept 1993, but there was evidence of growing support for anti-EC parties. In May 1994 member states of the European Union (formerly the EC) agreed to Norway's accession, but this was rejected in a national referendum Nov 1994.
The world’s largest ever passenger liner, measuring 316 m/1,037 ft long and with a gross tonnage of over 70,200 metric tons. It can carry 2,400 passengers. The Norway was launched originally as the France 1979, and renamed 1981 after purchase by Knut Kloster of Norway.