/ siˈerə liˈoʊn /
Množina reči Sierra Leone je Sierra Leones.
Republic of Sierra Leone · Sierra Leone
Prevedi Sierra Leone na: nemački
A republic in West Africa.
Country in W Africa, on the Atlantic Ocean, bounded N and E by Guinea and SE by Liberia.
The 1978 and 1991 constitutions were suspended after a military coup 1992 and a military governing body, the National Provisional Ruling Council, established, chaired by the military leader. This later became the Supreme Council of State. The former cabinet was reconstituted as the Council of Secretaries. The government contains civilians but is dominated by the military.
For early history, see Africa. Freetown, the capital, was founded by Britain 1787 for homeless Africans rescued from slavery. Sierra Leone became a British colony 1808.
Sierra Leone achieved full independence as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth 1961, with Sir Milton Margai, leader of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), as prime minister. He died 1964 and was succeeded by his half brother, Dr Albert Margai. The 1967 general election was won by the All People's Congress (APC), led by Dr Siaka Stevens, but the result was disputed by the army, which assumed control and forced the governor-general to leave the country.
In 1968 another army revolt brought back Stevens as prime minister, and in 1971, after the constitution had been changed to make Sierra Leone a republic, he became president. He was reelected 1976, and the APC, having won the 1977 general election by a big margin, began to demand the creation of a one-party state. To this end, a new constitution was approved by referendum 1978, and Stevens was sworn in as president.
Stevens did not run 1985, and the APC endorsed the commander of the army, Maj Gen Joseph Momoh, as the sole candidate for the party leadership and presidency. Momoh appointed a civilian cabinet and dissociated himself from the policies of his predecessor, who had been criticized for failing to prevent corruption within his administration. Assembly elections were held 1982 but annulled because of alleged irregularities. It was reported Oct 1989 that an attempted coup against the government had been put down.
In Aug 1991 a move toward multiparty politics was approved by referendum. Subsequently six political parties combined to form the United Front of Political Movements. In April 1992 the army took over the government and President Momoh fled to neighboring Guinea. Political party activity was suspended and an interim National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) was set up, led by Capt Valentine Strasser, consisting of eighteen army officers and four civilians. The NPRC was later renamed the Supreme Council of State. Capt Strasser pledged to restore civilian rule and multiparty politics some time in the future.