/ jeltsən /
muški rodlično ime
Prevedi Yeltsin na: nemački
(1931-) Russian politician, president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) 1990–91, and president of the newly independent Russian Federation from 1991. He directed the Federation's secession from the USSR and the formation of a new, decentralized confederation, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), with himself as the most powerful leader. A referendum 1993 supported his policies of price deregulation and accelerated privatization, despite severe economic problems and civil unrest. He survived a coup attempt later the same year, but was later forced to compromise on the pace of his reforms after far-right electoral gains.
Born in Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg), Yeltsin joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1961. Brought to Moscow by Mikhail Gorbachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov in 1985, he was appointed secretary for construction and then, in Dec 1985, Moscow party chief. He was reelected March 1989 and subsequently elected to the Supreme Soviet in May 1989. A supporter of the Baltic states in their calls for greater independence, Yeltsin demanded increasingly more radical economic reform. In 1990 he renounced his CPSU membership and was elected president of the RSFSR, the largest republic of the USSR. Advocating greater autonomy for the constituent republics within a federal USSR, Yeltsin prompted the Russian parliament in June 1990 to pass a decree giving the republic's laws precedence over those passed by the Soviet parliament. In the abortive Aug 1991 coup, Yeltsin supported President Gorbachev. He was instrumental in the creation of the CIS and combined the offices of Russian president and prime minister to push
through an ambitious but unpopular program of price deregulation and accelerated privatization. As the economic situation deteriorated within Russia, his leadership came under increasing challenge, but in April 1992 he persuaded 18 of the 20 autonomous republics in the Russian Federation to sign a federative treaty, and in June appointed the radical reformer Yegor Gaidar to take over as acting prime minister. In Dec 1992, attempting to ward off a rumored hard-line communist coup, Yeltsin replaced Gaidar with the conservative Viktor Chernomyrdin, but bound Chernomyrdin to retain the reformist core of the earlier cabinet. In Jan 1993 Yeltsin and US president Bush signed the START II treaty in Moscow.
A constitutional referendum April 1993 showed the Russian people to be in support of his economic policies, but in Sept 1993, faced with increasing resistance to his reforms, he dissolved parliament and called elections to fill a new bicameral legislature. An attempted coup by parliamentary leaders Sept–Oct 1993 was successfully thwarted, but unexpected far-right gains in Dec assembly elections forced him to compromise his economic policies and rely increasingly on the support of the military. From early 1995 he came under criticism for his apparent sanctioning of a full-scale military offensive in the breakaway republic of Chechnya. His hospitalization with a heart condition July 1995 raised speculation as to his possible successors.