ETYM AS. docga; akin to Dutch dog mastiff, Dan. dogge, Swed. dogg.
A member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds; SYN. domestic dog, Canis familiaris.
Any carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae, including wild dogs, wolves, jackals, coyotes, and foxes. Specifically, the domestic dog Canis familiaris, the earliest animal descended from the wolf or jackal. Dogs were first domesticated over 10,000 years ago, and migrated with humans to all the continents. They have been selectively bred into many different varieties for use as working animals and pets.
The dog has slender legs and walks on its toes (digitigrade). The forefeet have five toes, the hind feet four, with nonretractile claws. The head is small and the muzzle pointed, but the shape of the head differs greatly in various breeds. The average life of a dog is from 10 to 14 years, though some live to be 20. The dog has a very acute sense of smell and can readily be trained, for it has a good intelligence.
Of the wild dogs, some are solitary, such as the long-legged maned wolf Chrysocyon brachurus of South America, but others hunt in groups, such as the African hunting dog Lycaonpictus (classified as a vulnerable species) and the wolf. Jackals scavenge for food, and the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides of E Asia includes plant food as well as meat in its diet. The Australian wild dog is the dingo.
In the US, the American Kennel Club sets standards for about 200 registered breeds.
Darwin believed the dog to be descended from two species of wolves, Canis lupus and Canis latrans, as well as from certain European, Indian, and African canine species, and from the jackal. This argument is supported by the fact that the dog and wolf will interbreed with each other and produce fertile offspring, whereas most hybrids are not fertile. On the other hand the domesticated dog is in one feature very different from the wild Canidae—the pupil of its eye is round, whereas in the wolf the pupil is placed obliquely, and in the fox and jackal perpendicularly.
Like wolves, dogs defend a territory against other dogs—in the case of pets the immediate area round the home—but wander further afield, marking “scent posts” by urinating and by defecating. Dogs bury food, again like wolves, and there are close similarities too in sounds and communication behavior, aggressive behavior, courtship, and care of young. Prolonged close confinement or isolation can lead to neurotic behavior.
The gestation period is 63 days. There are usually 4–8 pups in a litter, though occasionally there can be as many as 20. The young are born blind and remain so for about 10 days.
Among the worst diseases of dogs are distemper, paradistemper (hard pad), infectious canine hepatitis (Rubarth's disease), and leptospiral infection, all of which are contagious and dangerous diseases which can, however, be effectively controlled by inoculation of puppies. External parasites cause mange and ringworm, both of which are infectious, whilst internal parasites such as tape- and roundworms may be responsible for a serious breakdown in health unless dealt with effectively. Dogs in certain countries may also be at risk from rabies.
Uses of dogs.
Dogs are used in hunting, for coursing and retrieving game. They are also valuable as sheepdogs, keeping the flock together, and as guards. In the Arctic regions dogs drag sleighs and other vehicles across the snow. They have frequently saved people from drowning and from suffocation in snowdrifts. Dogs are also employed as messengers, for tracking criminals, detecting drugs, and as guides for the blind.
Canine remains have been found in the Danish kitchen-middens of the Neolithic period side by side with human remains. The friezes of Egyptian temples and many very early Egyptian monuments (dating from c. 3000 BC) were carved with figures of dogs. The Jews of the Old and New Testaments regarded dogs as unclean; this was perhaps a reaction to the worship bestowed upon them by the neighboring tribes of Egyptians and Syrians. The Egyptians worshiped Sirius, a star which they named “dog star” because of its faithfulness in appearing at a certain season to warn them of the approaching overflow of the Nile. The Greeks made use of dogs in battle as well as for hunting. The Romans classified dogs into three groups: (1) Canes venatici, or hunting-dogs; (2) Canes pastorales, or sheepdogs; (3) Canes villatici, or watchdogs. Early Britain was renowned for its mastiffs, which, according to the Greek historian Strabo, played an important part in the Gallic wars. During the Middle Ages dogs were used in England chiefly in s.
Port. Dogs have played a useful part in exploration, from the time of Columbus’s discovery of America down to more recent Arctic expeditions.
Dogs in literature.
Dogs are present in the mythology and folklore of the earliest peoples—Fingal’s companions Bran and Luath, Cavall “King Arthur’s hound of deepest mouth”, and Hodain of the Tristram and Iseult story. In Greek mythology Ulysses has the faithful dog Argus in the Odyssey, who recognizes his master after an absence of 20 years. Another dog in Greek mythology was Maera, who, by his prolonged howling, directed Erigone to the spot where her father, Icarius, had been murdered. Maera was placed among the stars by Zeus, where he was known as Procyon (“little dog”) or Icarius Canis. Another story of canine fidelity is the Dog of the Seven Sleepers, who accompanied his masters to the cave in which they were confined, and stood on guard by their side for 300 years, without moving, eating, drinking, or sleeping. Mohammed admitted him into paradise under the name of Katmir. In folklore dogs have often been credited with mysterious knowledge of spiritual things, and have sometimes been uncanny friends of such magicians as Cor.
Nelius Agrippa. They were also depicted as terrible monsters, such as the snarling, many-headed Cerberus, who guarded the entrance to Hades on the farther side of the Styx.
Srce; crveno srce na francuskim kartama za igranje; up. herc.
Verna domaća životinja, danas postije više od dve stotine različitih vrsta. Te rase se razlikuju po veličini, dlaci, obliku nosa i tela, navikama.
Dok pas njuška, u nosu šupljinu ulazi vazduh. Da bi se uveličala površina, šupljina je pregrađena hrskavicom. Dok je kod čoveka ćelijama mirisa obložen samo vrh nosne šupljine, kod psa je nalik lavirintu celo organ prekriven sluzokožom koja prima sve mirise.
NJuh psa se pokazao više od milion puta osetljiviji od čovekovog. Ispitivanja su pokazala da je njuh psa još osetljiviji u prirodi.
Danas ima toliko vrsta pasa da ih nije moguće čak ni nabrojati, a kamoli ukratko opisati. Psi se prema karakterističnim aktivnostima kojima se bave dele na pse trkače i pse tragače, na terijere, pse za vuču, pse čuvare, luksuzne pse, kućne pse. Lovci posebno cene pse tragače, kojima se poverava zadatak da tiho slede trag divljači sve do njenog kloništa i tako lovca odvedu do lovine. Čuveni psi tragači su ptičari, koker i poenter.