/ əˌlekˈtrɑːnɪk ˈmjuːzɪk /
Music created with computers and electronic devices. See also MIDI, synthesizer. Term first applied 1954 to edited tape music composed primarily of electronically generated and modified tones, serially organized to objective scales of differentiation, to distinguish it from the more intuitive methodology of concrete music. The term was subsequently extended to include prerecorded vocal and instrumental sounds organized in a similar way, as in Stockhausen’s Gesang der Jünglinge/Song of the Youths 1955 and Berio’s Differences for chamber ensemble and tape 1957. Other pioneers of electronic music are Milton Babbitt and Bruno Maderna.
After 1960, with the arrival of the purpose-built synthesizer developed by Robert Moog, Peter Zinovieff, and others, interest switched to computer-aided synthesis, culminating in the 4X system installed at IRCAM.