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Expressionismus

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Begriff für eine künstler. Stilrichtung des frühen 20. Jh., bes. bedeutsam in Malerei und Graphik. Prinzipiell ist der E. eine Ausdruckskunst, die so direkt wie möglich die innere Verfaßtheit des Künstlers anschaulich machen will. Zeitlich ist dieser Begriff des E. in Europa zw. etwa 1905 und 1925 anzusiedeln. Vorläufer des E. waren Vincent van Gogh, Edvard Munch, Paul Gauguin, James Ensor, Hodler u.a. Der E. formierte sich bes. in Deutschland, Italien, Frankreich und Rußland und führte zur Bildung von Künstlervereinigungen wie 'Die Brücke' in Dresden und später Berlin (Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Mueller Otto, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff) und der 'Blaue Reiter' in München (Alexej von Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, August Macke, Franz Marc, Gabriele Münter). Der E. ist auch in Skandinavien vertreten; Oskar Kokoschka ist der führende Vertreter in Österreich, in der Graphik sind es Alfred Kubin und Egon Schiele. Der frz. Fauvismus war eine verwandte Paral

expressionism
/ ɪkspreʃənɪzəm /

imenica

Style of painting, sculpture, and literature that expresses inner emotions; in particular, a movement in early 20th-century art in northern and central Europe. Expressionists tended to distort or exaggerate natural appearance in order to create a reflection of an inner world; the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch’s Skriket/The Scream 1893 (National Gallery, Oslo) is perhaps the most celebrated example. Expressionist writers include August Strindberg and Frank Wedekind.
Other leading Expressionist artists were James Ensor, Oskar Kokoschka, and Chaďm Soutine. The groups die Brücke and der Blaue Reiter were associated with this movement, and the Expressionist trend in German art emerged even more strongly after World War I in the work of Max Beckmann and Georg Grosz.
Among other artists whose work may be loosely described as expressionist are the painters Klee, Kandinsky, and van Gogh, and the writers Franz Kafka and James Joyce, who (along with many contemporary poets) express inner truths though the raw symbols that spring from the unconscious.
In music, use of melodic or harmonic distortion for expressive effect, associated with Schoenberg, Hindemith, Krenek, and others.In motion pictures, the stylization of sets, acting, and lighting influenced by the German expressionist art movement. The sets were distorted and largely abstract and played as important a role as the actors. Lighting was used to emphasize deep shadows and the camera was oddly angled to highlight the grotesque and fantastic.
Robert Wiene’s The Cabinet of Dr Caligari is the prime example of expressionism as it developed in the later silent era of German cinema. The influence of expressionism can be detected in the films of Alfred Hitchcock and Orson Welles. Other key examples are Paul Wegener’s The Golem 1920, F W Murnau’s Nosferatu 1922, and Paul Leni’s Waxworks 1924.1. A genre of German painting that tried to show the subjective responses to scenes rather than the scenes themselves.
2. An art movement early in the 20th century; the artist's subjective expression of inner experiences was emphasized.

Reč dana | 02.07.2020.

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