Prevedi Mauritius na: srpski
M. wurde 1510 von Portugiesen entdeckt; es war 1598–1710 ndl., seit 1715 als Île de France frz. u. seit 1810 brit. 1968 wurde M. als parlamentar. Monarchie im Commonwealth unabhängig. 1992 proklamierte die Regierung die Republik.
/ mɒrɪtiəs /
Množina reči Mauritius je Mauritiuses.
Mauritius · Republic of Mauritius
Island country in the Indian Ocean, E of Madagascar.
The 1968 constitution, amended 1969 and 1991, provides for a parliamentary form of government with a single-chamber legislative assembly of up to 71 members, 62 elected by universal adult suffrage, plus the speaker and up to eight of the most successful nonelected candidates as “additional” members. The constitution was further amended 1992, making the country a republic. The president, elected by the assembly, appoints the prime minister as head of government and a council of ministers who are collectively responsible to the assembly.
Uninhabited until the 16th century, the island was colonized on a small scale by the Dutch, who named it Mauricius after Prince Maurice of Nassau. They abandoned it 1710, and in 1715 it was occupied by the French, who imported African slaves to work on their sugar-cane plantations. Mauritius was seized by Britain 1810 and was formally ceded by the Treaty of Paris 1814. The abolition of slavery 1833 brought about the importation of indentured laborers from India, whose descendants now make up about 70% of the island's population. In 1957 Mauritius achieved internal self-government, and full independence within the Commonwealth 1968.
succession of coalition governments
Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, leader of the Mauritius Labour Party (MLP), who had led the country since 1959, became its first prime minister. During the 1970s he led a succession of coalition governments.
Dissatisfaction with the government's economic policies led to Ramgoolam's defeat and the formation 1982 of a Mauritius Militant Movement (MMM)–Mauritius Socialist Party (PSM) coalition government led by Aneerood Jugnauth. Strains developed within the alliance, 12 MMM ministers resigned 1983, and the coalition was dissolved. Jugnauth then founded the Mauritius Socialist Movement (MSM), and the PSM was incorporated in the new party. A general election later that year resulted in an MSM–MLP–Mauritius Social Democratic Party (PMSD) coalition, under Jugnauth. Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam was appointed governor-general 1983. He died 1985, and former finance minister Sir Veersamy Ringadoo replaced him.
On the strength of economic policies that cut inflation and unemployment, Jugnauth was reelected 1987. In Aug 1990 an attempt by Jugnauth to make the country a republic was narrowly defeated in the legislative assembly. The ruling coalition, headed by Jugnauth, secured an overwhelming majority in the 1991 general election.
a republic within the Commonwealth
In March 1992 the country became a republic but remained a member of the Commonwealth. Ringadoo became interim president, and was later succeeded by Cassam Uteem.
Mauritius, which has no standing army, has pursued a moderately nonaligned foreign policy (see nonaligned movement) during recent years.
1. A parliamentary state on the island of Mauritius.
2. An island in the Indian Ocean.