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Republika u Južnoj Americi.

/ ɡɑːjɑːnə /


Množina reči Guyana je Guyanas.

British Guiana · Co-operative Republic of Guyana · Guyana

A republic in northeastern South America; Also called: British Guiana.
Country in South America, bounded N by the Atlantic Ocean, E by Surinam, S and SW by Brazil, and NW by Venezuela.
Guyana is a sovereign republic within the Commonwealth. The 1980 constitution provides for a single-chamber national assembly of 65 members, 53 elected by universal suffrage and 12 elected by the regions, for a five-year term. The president is the nominee of the party winning most votes in the national assembly elections and serves for the life of the assembly, appointing a cabinet that is collectively responsible to it.
Inhabited by Arawak, Carib, and Warrau Indians when the first Europeans arrived in the late 1500s, the area now known as Guyana was a Dutch colony 1621–1796, when it was seized by Britain. By the Treaty of London 1814, the three Dutch colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice were ceded to the UK. In 1831 they were united as British Guiana. However, a Dutch-style constitution prevailed until 1891. The Dutch town of Stabroek was renamed Georgetown and served as the capital.
The abolition of the slave trade 1807 and slavery 1834 brought the ruin of many planters. Between 1838 and 1917, 340,000 immigrants came to the colony from India; this immigration was stopped 1917 under pressure from the government of India.
The transition from colonial to republican status was gradual and not entirely smooth. In 1953 a constitution providing for free elections to an assembly was introduced, and the left-wing People's Progressive Party (PPP), led by Dr Cheddi Jagan, won the popular vote. Within months, however, the UK government suspended the constitution and put in its own interim administration, claiming that the PPP threatened to become a communist dictatorship.
internal self-government
In 1957 a breakaway group from the PPP founded a new party, the People's National Congress (PNC), which was supported mainly by Guyanans of African descent, while PPP followers were mainly of Indian descent. Fresh elections, under a revised constitution, were held 1957, and the PPP won again, with Jagan becoming chief minister. Internal self-government was granted 1961 and, with the PPP again the successful party, Jagan became prime minister. Proportional representation was introduced 1963, and in the 1964 elections (under the new voting procedures) the PPP, although winning most votes, did not have an overall majority, resulting in the formation of a PPP–PNC coalition with PNC leader Forbes Burnham as prime minister.
after independence
This coalition took the country through to full independence 1966. The PNC won the 1968 and 1973 elections; in 1970 Guyana became a republic within the Commonwealth. In 1980 a new constitution was adopted, making the president head of both state and government, and as a result of the 1981 elections—which opposition parties claimed were fraudulent—Burnham became executive president. The rest of his administration was marked by economic deterioration (necessitating austerity measures) and cool relations with the Western powers, particularly the US, whose invasion of Grenada he condemned. He died 1985 and was succeeded by Prime Minister Desmond Hoyte.
return of Jagan
In the Aug 1992 general election, the PPP had a decisive win and its veteran leader, Cheddi Jagan, became president.

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