/ mərɑːkoʊ /
Množina reči Morocco je Moroccos.
1. A kingdom (constitutional monarchy) in northwestern Africa; Also called: Maroc, Marruecos, Al-Magrib.
2. Town in Indiana (USA); zip code 47963.
Country in NW Africa, bounded N and NW by the Mediterranean Sea, E and SE by Algeria, and S by Western Sahara.
Under the 1992 constitution, Morocco is an Islamic state headed by an hereditary monarch. There is a 306-member chamber of representatives (Majlis An-Nuwab), serving a six-year term; 206 are directly elected by universal suffrage, and 100 are chosen by an electoral college of local councillors and employers' and employees' representatives. The king appoints a cabinet and prime minister who are responsible to the assembly and the king. Legislative powers are shared between the monarch and the assembly, each being able to initiate laws. The king may dissolve the assembly by decree, after taking constitutional advice, and the assembly may dismiss the government through a vote of no-confidence.
Originally occupied by Berber tribes, the coastal regions of the area now known as Morocco were under Phoenician rule during the 10th–3rd centuries BC, and became a Roman colony in the 1st century AD. It was invaded in the 5th century by the Vandals, in the 6th century by the Visigoths, and in the 7th century began to be conquered by the Arabs. From the 11th century the region was united under the Almoravids, who ruled a Muslim empire that included Spain, Morocco, and Algeria. They were followed by the Almohads, another Muslim dynasty, whose empire included Libya and Tunisia.
In the 15th century Portugal occupied the Moroccan port of Ceuta but was defeated 1578. Further European influence began in the 19th century and was more lasting, with Morocco being divided 1912 into French and Spanish protectorates. It became fully independent as the Sultanate of Morocco 1956 under Mohammed V (sultan from 1927). The former Spanish protectorate joined the new state, with Tangier, which had previously been an international zone. The sultan was restyled king of Morocco 1957. After his death 1961 he was succeeded by King Hassan II, who has survived several attempted coups and assassinations. Between 1960 and 1972 several constitutions were formulated in an attempt to balance personal royal rule with demands for greater democracy.
Western Sahara dispute.
Hassan's reign has been dominated by the dispute over Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony seen as historically Moroccan. In 1975 Spain ceded it to Morocco and Mauritania, leaving them to divide it. The inhabitants, who had not been consulted, reacted violently through an independence movement, the Polisario Front. Less than a year later, Morocco and Mauritania were involved in a guerrilla war.
With Algerian support, Polisario set up a government in exile in Algiers, the Sahrahwi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). This prompted Hassan to sever diplomatic relations with Algeria 1976. In 1979 Mauritania agreed a peace treaty with Polisario, and Morocco annexed the part of Western Sahara that Mauritania had vacated. Polisario reacted by intensifying its operations.
In 1983 another cease-fire mediated by the Organization of African Unity failed to uphold.
Although the war was costly, it allowed Hassan to capitalize on the patriotism it generated in his country. In 1984 he unexpectedly signed an agreement with Col Khaddhafi of Libya, who had been helping Polisario, guaranteeing economic and political cooperation and mutual defense. Meanwhile, Morocco was becoming more isolated as the SADR gained wider recognition.
peace with Polisario.
Towards the end of 1987 the Polisario guerrillas agreed a cease-fire, but hostilities continued. However, in Aug 1988 a United Nations peace plan was accepted by both sides, calling for a referendum to permit the area's inhabitants to choose independence or incorporation into Morocco. Full diplomatic relations with Algeria were restored 1988, and with Syria 1989.
In 1990–91 Morocco officially opposed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, although there was much popular support for Iraq. Domestically, the surge in Islamic fundamentalism concerned the government.
In Aug 1992 King Hassan appointed the veteran politician Mohammed Lamrani to head a government of independents. A new constitution was approved in a national referendum Sept 1992, although it fell short of the democratic advances demanded by the king's opponents. In 1993, as part of the Middle East peace process, a peace accord was signed with Israel. The ruling coalition lost the first round of parliamentary elections June 1993, but was restored to power in the second round of indirect elections in Sept. Abd al-Latif Filali replaced Lamrani as prime minister May 1994.