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Država u Velikoj Britaniji.

Northern Ireland
/ ˈnɔːrðərn ˈaɪərlənd /


Množina reči Northern Ireland je Northern Irelands.

Northern Ireland

Constituent part of the United Kingdom
area 13,460 sq km/5,196 sq mi
capital Belfast
towns and cities Londonderry, Enniskillen, Omagh, Newry, Armagh, Coleraine
features Mourne Mountains, Belfast Lough and Lough Neagh; Giant’s Causeway; comprises the six counties (Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Derry, and Tyrone) that form part of Ireland’s northernmost province of Ulster
exports engineering, shipbuilding, textile machinery, aircraft components; linen and synthetic textiles; processed foods, especially dairy and poultry products; rubber products, chemicals
currency pound sterling

language English; 5.3% Irish-speaking
religion Protestant 51%, Roman Catholic 38%
famous people Viscount Montgomery, Lord Alanbrooke
government direct rule from the UK since 1972. Northern Ireland is entitled to send 12 members to the Westminster Parliament. The province costs the UK government Ł3 billion annually
history for history pre-1921, see Ireland: history The creation of Northern Ireland dates from 1921 when the Irish Free State (subsequently the Republic of Ireland) was established separately from the mainly Protestant counties of Ulster (six out of nine), which were given limited self-government but continued to send members to the House of Commons. Spasmodic outbreaks of violence by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) continued, but only in 1968–69 were there serious disturbances arising from Protestant political dominance and discrimination against the Roman Catholic minority in employment and housing. British troops were sent 1969 to restore peace and protect Catholics, but disturbances continued and in 1972 the parliament at Stormont was prorogued and superseded by direct rule from Westminster. Under the Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985, the Republic of Ireland was given a consultative role (via an Anglo-Irish conference) in the government of Northern Ireland, but agreed that there should be no change in its statu
s except by majority consent. The agreement was approved by Parliament, but all 12 Ulster members gave up their seats, so that by-elections could be fought as a form of “referendum” on the views of the province itself. A similar boycotting of the Northern Ireland Assembly led to its dissolution 1986 by the UK government.
The question of Northern Ireland's political future was debated in talks held in Belfast April–Sept 1991—the first direct negotiations between the political parties for 16 years. Follow-up talks between the British government and the main Northern Ireland parties Sept–Nov 1992 made little progress. In Sept 1993 it emerged that the Catholic nationalist Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP) and Sinn Fein (political wing of the outlawed IRA) had held talks aimed at achieving a political settlement. This revelation prompted the British government to engage in bilateral talks with the main Northern Ireland parties, and in Dec 1993 London and Dublin issued a joint peace proposal, the Downing Street Declaration, for consideration by all parties.
IRA cease-fire
In August 1994 the Provisional IRA announced a unilateral cease-fire in an attempt to reach a non-violent solution. In May 1995 Sinn Fein engaged in the first public talks with British government officials since 1973. Previous talks had stalled over the issues of decommissioning of IRA weapons and full withdrawal of British troops from Ulster.
Job discrimination was outlawed under the Fair Employment Act 1975, but in 1987 Catholics in Northern Ireland were two and a half times more likely to be unemployed than their Protestant counterparts—a differential that had not improved since 1971. In 1993, unemployment was running at 14.2%, and 75% of the unemployed were Catholic. Residential integration was still sparse in 1993: 650,000 people lived in areas that were 90% Catholic or Protestant. The 3,000th death since 1969 as a result of terrorist activity in Northern Ireland occurred August 1992; 84 people were killed during 1992. At the beginning of 1994 there were 18,000 troops in Northern Ireland.
The total cost of the emergency in Northern Ireland was calculated 1993 by the House of Commons research department at Ł14.5 billion at current prices.
A division of the United Kingdom located on the northern part of the island of Ireland.
See Ireland, Northern.

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