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srpsko - engleski rečnik

Ujedinjene nacije prevod

Ujedinjene nacije

množina

United Nations
/ juˈnaɪtəd ˈneɪʃn̩z /

množina

Množina reči United Nations je United Nations.

Sinonimi:
UN · United Nations

(un) Association of states for international peace, security, and cooperation, with its headquarters in New York. The un was established 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, and has played a role in many areas, such as refugees, development assistance, disaster relief, and cultural cooperation. Its membership in 1994 stood at 184 states, and the total proposed budget for 1994–95 (raised by the member states) was $2,468 million. Boutros Boutros-Ghali became secretary-general 1992. There are six official working languages: English, French, Russian, Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic.
The principal institutions are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, all based in New York; and the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands. There are many specialized agencies, involved either in promoting communication between states (such as the International Telecommunication Union, itu), or concerned with welfare of states, such as the World Health Organization (who), the un Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (unESCO), and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). Much of the work of the specialized welfare agencies concerns the developing countries, and consists mainly of research and field work. However, they also provide international standards relevant to all countries in their respective fields.
Though autonomous, the specialized agencies are related to the United Nations by special arrangements and work with the un and each other through the coordinating machinery of the Economic and Social Council.
The us regularly (often alone or nearly so) votes against General Assembly resolutions on aggression, international law, human-rights abuses, and disarmament, and has exercised its veto on the Security Council more times than any other member (the uk is second, France a distant third). The un has always suffered from a lack of adequate and independent funds and forces.
Principal institutions
The General Assembly
One member from each of the 184 member states who meet annually for a session usually lasting from late Sept to the end of the year; it can be summoned at any time for an emergency session. All members of the un have equal status in the Assembly, each state having one vote. Important decisions, such as the condemnation of an act by one of its members, are taken by a two-thirds majority while others require a simple majority.
The General Assembly was originally intended to be merely a deliberative body. Pressures from the smaller states at the time of its establishment ensured it of a larger rôle. Although its decisions have no mandatory status and are only recommendations, it may discuss any subject and make recommendations on it to the Security Council or a member state. It may also call the attention of the Security Council to situations likely to endanger the peace. It initiates studies and makes recommendations designed to further political cooperation, legal development, economic and social cooperation, and the achievement of human rights. It elects the nonpermanent members of the Security Council and supervises the activities, as well as electing the members, of the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council. Together with the Security Council it elects members of the International Court of Justice. It also controls un finances, approves the budget, and decides what contributions member states shall make. To date seven Special Sessions have been held to discuss particular issues.
The Security Council
The most powerful body of the un, the Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security, and acts on behalf of un member states in carrying out its duties. It has five permanent members—the us, Russia, the uk, France, and China— plus ten rotating members (six until 1965), which serve for two years each. Decisions must be agreed by nine members (seven until 1965) including, except on procedural matters, the permanent members. Any permanent member can therefore veto a decision, although an abstention is not counted as a veto.
Five of the ten temporary members are elected each year by the General Assembly for a two-year term; retiring members are not eligible for reelection. At any one time the ten rotating members must comprise five countries from Africa and Asia, two from Latin America, one from E Europe, and two from W Europe. Member states undertake to accept and carry out its decisions in accordance with the Charter. The Council can be called into session at any time, and a representative of each of its member states is present at all times at un Headquarters.
Any un member may be invited to participate in the Security Council's discussions (though not to vote) if they bear on its interests. The council may investigate disputes and make recommendations to the parties concerned, and may call on members to take economic or military measures to enforce its decisions; it has at its disposal a Military Staff Committee, composed of the chiefs of staff of the permanent member countries. The presidency of the Security Council is held for a month at a time by a representative of a member state, in English-language alphabetical order.
The Security Council's role in maintaining international peace and security is set out in Chapters vi and viI of the Charter. Chapter vi deals with the peaceful settlement of disputes likely to endanger international peace and security. If states fail to settle such disputes by negotiation, arbitration, or other peaceful means external to the un, they are obliged to bring them to the attention of the Security Council. In practice they frequently fail to do this. The Security Council may also investigate any dispute or situation to determine if it is likely to endanger international peace. At any stage the Council may recommend appropriate measures and if the parties so request, may make recommendations with a view to peaceful settlement.
Recommendations under Chapter vi of the Charter are not mandatory on states. This means that the Security Council is not able, under this chapter, to force states to keep the peace. It has, therefore, had little success in solving seemingly intractable disputes such as those in the Middle East or Cyprus. Nevertheless, where disputants have recognised their need for third party assistance in reaching solutions, the Security Council has achieved a considerable amount. Examples of successful intervention occurred in the dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands of 1947–49, in the Lebanon and Jordan crisis of 1958, and in the Congo crisis of the 1960s. In addition the Security Council has frequently helped to ensure orderly transfers of power in colonial countries by organising plebiscites and elections.
Chapter viI of the Charter, on action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression, was intended to provide a un world security system. The Security Council's decisions under this Chapter are mandatory.
It has the duty of determining the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, and to make recommendations or decide what measures shall be taken. Before making recommendations or decisions it can call upon the states concerned to comply with any provisional measures it determines are necessary or desirable. Subsequently, it may call on member states to impose economic, communication, and diplomatic sanctions on a recalcitrant state, and if these measures are deemed inadequate it may take military action. All member states are obliged to provide the Security Council with such military assistance as is deemed necessary and Article 47 of the Charter provides for the establishment of a Military Staff Committee made up of representatives of the five permanent members of the Security Council to coordinate and direct un military operations.
The Economic and Social Council
This guides and coordinates the General Assembly’s economic program. It consists of 54 members elected for three years, one-third retiring in rotation. Each member has one vote and decisions are by a simple majority. It usually meets twice a year, in New York and Geneva; the presidency rotates on the same system as the Security Council. It initiates studies of international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters, calls for reports from the specialised agencies and other un bodies, such as international experts on economics, transport and communications, human rights, status of women, and so on, as well as regional commissions and hundreds of nongovernmental agencies that have been granted consultative status. It may make recommendations to the General Assembly, or may also draft conventions, binding on states which ratify them, for approval by the General Assembly. It coordinates the activities of the Food and Agriculture Organization (fao).
The Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council is responsible for overseeing the administration of the un trust territories. Its members are China, France, the Russian Federation, the uk, and the us. It holds one regular session a year and can meet in special sessions if required. The system applies to territories formerly held under the League of Nations Mandate system, those acquired from the defeated powers at the end of World War ii, and any others placed under its control. Its objectives are to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the territories and their development toward self-government or independence. By 1949 11 territories had been placed under the system. Today, all are independent.
The International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the un. Membership is open to all states that are parties to its statute and to other states under certain conditions. Only states, not individuals, can be parties to cases before the court. There is no appeal. Decisions of the Court are binding, but states are not obliged to submit cases to it. They can, however, declare that they accept its jurisdiction as compulsory in certain types of case. The ourt gives advisory opinions at the request of un bodies.
The court consists of 15 independent judges, elected by the Security Council and the General Assembly on the basis of their competence in international law and irrespective of their nationalities, except that no two judges can be nationals of the same state. They serve for nine years and may be immediately reelected. The president and vice president are elected by the court for three-year terms. Decisions are by majority vote of the judges present, and the president has a casting vote.
The Secretariat is headed by the secretary-general, who has under- and assistant secretaries general and a large international staff of civil servants with loyalties to the organisation and the international community rather than to any government. The secretary-general is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a renewable five-year term.
Specialized agencies
World Trade Organization (wto) established 1995, headquarters in Geneva; reduction of trade barriers, antidumping code, assistance to trade of developing countries
International Atomic Energy Agency (iaea)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (ibrd) popularly known as the World Bank
International Civil Aviation Organization (icao) established 1947, headquarters in Montreal; safety and efficiency, international facilities and air law
International Development Association (ida) administered by the World Bank
International Finance Corporation (ifc) established 1956; affiliated to the World Bank, it encourages private enterprise in less industrialized countries
International Fund for Agricultural Development (ifad) established 1977, headquarters in Rome; additional funds for benefiting the poorest in Third World countries
International Labor Organization (ilo), headquarters in Geneva
International Maritime Organization (imo) established 1958, headquarters in London; safety at sea, pollution control, abolition of restrictive practices
International Monetary Fund (imf), headquarters in Washington, dc
International Telecommunication Union (itu) established 1934, headquarters in Geneva; allocation of radio frequencies; promotes low tariffs and life-saving measures for, for example, disasters at sea
United Nations Center for Human Settlements (unCHS) (Habitat) established 1978, headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (unCTAD) established 1964, headquarters in Geneva
United Nations Development Program (unDP) established 1965 to promote higher standards of living in the poorer nations and to try to remedy the economic imbalance between North and South; has 48 members, 15 of them in advanced industrial countries and the rest in varying stages of industrialization; headquarters in New York
Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (unDRO) established 1972 to coordinate international relief; headquarters in Geneva
United Nations Environment Program (unEP) established 1972 to monitor the state of the environment and promote environmentally sound developments throughout the world; headquarters in Nairobi
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (unESCO), headquarters in Paris
United Nations Fund for Population Activities (unFPA) established 1972 under the umbrella of unDP, headquarters in New York
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (unHCR) established 1951, headquarters in Geneva
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (unICEF) established 1953, headquarters in New York
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (unITAR) established 1965, headquarters in New York
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (unRISD) established 1964, headquarters in Geneva
Universal Postal Union (upu), headquarters in Berne, Switzerland
World Food Council (wfc) established 1974, headquarters in Rome
World Food Program (wfp) established 1963 to improve economic and social development through food aid and to provide emergency relief; headquarters in Rome
World Health Organization (who), headquarters in Geneva
World Intellectual Property Organization (wipo) established 1974, headquarters in Geneva; protection of copyright in the arts, science, and industry
World Meteorological Organization (wmo) established 1951, headquarters in Geneva.
Financing the United Nations
Members contribute financially according to their resources, an apportionment being made by the General Assembly, with the addition of voluntary contributions from some governments to the funds of the un. These finance the program of assistance carried out by the un intergovernmental agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund (unICEF), the un refugee organizations, and the United Nations Special Fund for developing countries. Total unpaid contributions of about $988 million had by the end of 1991 brought the un to the brink of insolvency. Only 18 member states had paid their annual dues in full by the deadline of 31 Jan 1993. The un was owed $500 million in arrears, about half of it by the us.the political work of the un
The un Charter, drawn up at the San Francisco Conference 1945, based on proposals drafted at the Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington, dc, envisaged in Chapter viI a un world security system, with the Security Council preserving the wartime alliance of the us, usSR, and Britain (with France and China also permanent members) in order to maintain the peace. This never became fully operational as a result of disagreements between the great powers during the cold war period and consequent blocking of Security Council action through the use of the veto. Disagreements in the military staff committee meant that no permanent un force was established and a central element in the security arrangements never came into being. The Security Council has used full enforcement action against states only twice in its history: in Korea in 1950, when it authorised military action to repel the invasion of the South by the North; and in 1966 when it imposed selective mandatory sanctions on Rhodesia (these were made comprehensive in 1968).
The early United Nations consisted mainly of the members of the Western alliance, a Latin American group, and Commonwealth, Arab, and East European groups. Within this United Nations the us and its allies had a built-in majority, and General Assembly resolutions usually reflected the interests and ideals of the Western world. Since the 1960s new nations have joined the un, many of them excolonies from Africa and Asia. These countries have very different traditions and aspirations from the countries of Western Europe and North America and by the 1980s there was a shift in the balance of power in the Assembly. Western nations often found themselves in a minority on resolutions on political and colonial matters, and on development and economic affairs that reflect the interests of the newer members. Particularly significant has been the increased attention given by the Assembly to colonialism on the one hand, and economic and social development on the other. In 1960 the Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, which proclaimed the necessity of bringing colonialism to a speedy and unconditional end, in all its forms and manifestations; declared that the subjection of peoples to alien subjugation was contrary to the Charter and was an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation; and insisted that all people had the right to self-determination. In 1961 a special committee was set up to seek ways of implementing this declaration. Since then General Assembly Resolutions have condemned the situations in South Africa, Namibia, Rhodesia, and in the former Portuguese colonies. The General Assembly recognised the liberation movements in these territories and called on states to intensify pressure on minority régimes. It has also encouraged the Security Council to pay increasing attention to colonial issues.
Taiwan, formerly a permanent member of the Security Council, was expelled 1971 on the admission of China. The breakup of the usSR and the increasing recognition of independent states throughout the world resulted in a further increase in un membership between 1990 and 1992. The Russian Federation took over the Soviet permanent seat on the Security Council.
Disarmament
Disarmament is another concern of the un. Article 2 of the un Charter empowers the General Assembly to make recommendations to member states or to the Security Council on principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and under Article 26 the Security Council has the responsibility of formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee, plans for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments. Negotiations looked most promising immediately following the easing of the cold war in 1961, when the Soviet Union and the United States produced joint principles (the Zorin/McCloy principles) on general and complete disarmament and effective means for the peaceful settlement of disputes and the maintenance of peace. They envisaged a system under which nations would disarm to the point where they retained only sufficient forces and armaments to provide contingents for a un security force and to maintain internal order. The principles were endorsed by the General Assembly. The following year the Soviet Union and the United States each presented draft treaties on general and complete disarmament, but negotiations broke down mainly over the question of international inspection and control of the disarmament process.
Since 1962 the emphasis in bilateral and multilateral discussion has been on arms-control rather than on disarmament. Arms control treaties agreed, often after negotiations in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, which evolved from a body established in 1959, are the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963); the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Treaty (1967); the Treaty of Tlateloclo making Latin America a nuclear free zone (1967); the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (1968); the Antarctic Treaty (1969); the Seabed Arms Control Treaty (1971); and the Biological Weapons Convention (1972). In recent years the main focus of attention has been on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (salt) conducted bilaterally between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Peacekeeping activities
The failure of international security as envisaged in the Charter has necessitated the development of other means of keeping the peace. These can be grouped under the heading “peacekeeping”. While peace enforcement is hostile, coercive action directed against a state with the intention of bringing it to heel, peacekeeping is noncoercive and has so far been carried out with the consent of a state and within its territory. It differs also from pacific settlement, since it is concerned not with the fundamental solution to a dispute but with keeping opposing sides apart or restoring law and order.
There are two kinds of peacekeeping operation managed by the un: observer forces responsible for supervising cease-fire lines, the evacuation of troops, and the return of prisoners; and armed peacekeeping forces used to separate opposing sides, patrol frontiers, or curtail military conflict and maintain order. Observer forces have been used in the Balkans, Indonesia, Middle East, Korea, Kashmir, Lebanon, West Irian, and Yemen. Peacekeeping forces have operated in the Middle East, Cyprus, and the Congo. These forces are very lightly armed and are usually permitted to use force only in self-defense. This means that there is little they can do when faced with determined belligerents. However, given a modicum of good will on the part of the belligerents, they can prevent minor incidents escalating, lower tensions, and keep opposing sides away from each other. The un Emergency Force operating on the Israeli/Egyptian border during the 1970s was an example of this activity.
One consequence of the deadlock in the Security Council during the cold war period was an extension of the General Assembly’s powers in maintaining international peace. The Security Council was responsible in June 1950 for sending several thousand troops, mostly American, to Korea to repel the Soviet-backed invasion of South Korea. Following this, the United States introduced in November 1950 the “Uniting for Peace” procedure which provided that in cases where the Council was unable to act because of disagreement among the permanent members, the General Assembly should be called into emergency session to consider the matter with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members, including, in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression, the use of armed force where necessary. These powers, short of the use of force, were used during the Suez Crisis of 1956, the Lebanon Crisis of 1958, and in the Congo in 1960.
As secretary-general 1982–91, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar was responsible for several successful peace initiatives, including the ending of the Iran-Iraq War and the withdrawal of South African and Cuban troops from Angola. The un also responded promptly to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 1990 but has been unsuccessful in its efforts to establish a permanent peace in the former republics of Yugoslavia. In 1994 it used the threat of nato air strikes to provide safe havens for refugees in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Its attempts at peacemaking, as opposed to peacekeeping, in Somalia also encountered problems and local criticisms.
In 1994, some 70,000 un peacekeepers were deployed, at an annual cost of just under $3 billion.
The economic work of the un
Assistance to developing countries has become increasingly important in the un over the past 25 years. In 1965 the Extended Co-operation Program of Technical Assistance, established in 1949, and the Special Fund of preinvestment surveys, established in 1959, were combined to form the un Development Program (unDP). This body co-ordinates the work of a number of specialised agencies and organisations concerned with development. In 1961 the 1960s were officially designated as the un Development Decade. The aim was to achieve an annual increase in Gross Domestic Product of 5 per cent annually in all developing countries by the end of the decade and developed countries were urged to increase their efforts to promote self-sustaining growth in the developing countries. The results of the First Development Decade were disappointing, partly as a result of the poor response from the developed countries and partly because of mistaken development priorities. A Second Development Decade was launched in 1970 and a coordination strategy adopted.
The un has also concerned itself with the trading problems of the developing countries. In 1961 the un Conference on Trade and Development (unCTAD) was established, based on a belief that fundamental changes in established trading patterns were needed to improve the economic position of developing countries. unCTAD was to be a forum in which developed and developing countries were to discuss and agree on these changes.
The achievements of unCTAD's first three sessions—in 1964, 1968, and 1972–were not encouraging. Before the fourth conference met in May 1976, the developing countries had become much more insistent in their demands. They were also in a position to pass resolutions reflecting their interests in the General Assembly. In April 1974, the Sixth Special Session of the General Assembly on the problem of raw materials and development approved a Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, which would give the developing countries control of their own resources, a better deal in world trade, and full participation in a reformed international monetary system. The Declaration was received with some hostility by the developed countries, but a more cooperative atmosphere prevailed at the Seventh Special Session of the Assembly on world development and international economic co-operation, which was held in September 1975. When the fourth unCTAD met in May 1976 the developing countries had some ho
Pes that some of their demands for protection of their products might be met. The conference in fact failed to settle any of their demands, nor did hopes for negotiation of agreements in 1977 materialise.
The human rights work of the un
In accordance with the Charter, the un has regarded human rights violations by countries as its proper concern. The implementation of this obligation has been handicapped by the interpretation states have put on Article 2 (7) of the Charter prohibiting interference in domestic affairs. Its human rights work is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, passed by the General Assembly on 10 Dec 1948. This is based on a belief in the inherent rights, equality, and freedom of human beings and sets out in 28 articles the fundamental freedoms—civil, political, economic—to be promoted. The Declaration has considerable moral force but is not legally binding on states.
In 1966 two Covenants on Human Rights were agreed: one on civil and political rights, and one on social and economic rights. These are legally binding on states that ratify them, and have now received the 35 ratifications they needed to come into being. They include machinery for implementation and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides for the establishment of a Committee on Human Rights to receive complaints. It may also set up conciliation machinery to help sort out the differences on human rights issues between states. This Covenant also has an optional protocol permitting individuals to petition for the first time on violations of their human rights.
The Commission on Human Rights was established in 1946 by the Economic and Social Council. It meets annually for a period of about six weeks. It was responsible for the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and of the two Covenants. The Commission functions as a public platform for the discussion of human rights; as a supervising agency for reports submitted by states on progress they have made on human rights, and the difficulties they meet in this respect; and as a body which prepares guidelines for the Economic and Social Council on the protection of human rights. It has no enforcement powers and has to rely on persuasion to achieve its aims. In 1952 it established a sub-commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.
In 1946 the Economic and Social Council established the Commission on the Status of Women. This studies the conditions of women throughout the world and recommends improvements. It has drafted a number of Conventions, legally binding on states that ratify them, which have been adopted by un bodies.
In 1975 the General Assembly adopted a Declaration against Torture and other cruel treatment. This has no legal status but has moral force. At the same time the General Assembly called for further study by the Commission on Human Rights on the subject of torture and for increased efforts to prevent it.
An organization of independent states to promote international peace and security; Also called: un.

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