1. The part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in the foreground; SYN. ground.
2. Relatively unimportant or inconspicuous accompanying situation.
3. A person's social heritage: previous experience or training.
4. Information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem; SYN. background knowledge.
5. Extraneous signals that can be confused with the phenomenon to be observed or measured; SYN. background signal.
6. (Computer science) The area of the screen in graphical user interfaces against which icons and windows appear; SYN. desktop, screen background.
ETYM Greek bio life + graphein to write: cf. French biographie. Related to Graphic.
An account of the series of events making up a person's life; SYN. life, life story, life history.
Account of a person's life. When it is written by that person, it is an autobiography. Biography may consist simply of the factual details of a person's life told in chronological order, but has generally become a matter of interpretation as well as historical accuracy. Unofficial biographies (not sanctioned by the subject) have frequently led to legal disputes over both interpretation and facts.
Among ancient biographers are Xenophon, Plutarch, Tacitus, Suetonius, and the authors of the Gospels of the New Testament. Medieval biography was mostly devoted to religious edification and produced chronicles of saints and martyrs; among secular biographies are Charlemagne by Frankish monk Einhard (c. 770–840), Alfred by Welsh monk Asser (died c. 910), and Petrarch by Boccaccio.
In England true biography begins with the early Tudor period and such works as Sir Thomas More 1626, written by his son-in-law William Roper (1498–1578). By the 18th century it became a literary form in its own right through Samuel Johnson’s Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets 1779–81 and James Boswell’s biography of Johnson 1791. Nineteenth-century biographers include Robert Southey, Elizabeth Gaskell, G H Lewes, J Morley, and Thomas Carlyle. The general tendency was to provide irrelevant detail and suppress the more personal facts. Lytton Strachey’s Eminent Victorians opened a new era of frankness in the history of biography.
Twentieth-century biographers include Richard Ellmann (1918–1987) (James Joyce and Oscar Wilde), Michael Holroyd (1935–) (Lytton Strachey and George Bernard Shaw), and Elizabeth Longford (Queen Victoria and Wellington).
The earliest biographical dictionary in the accepted sense was that of Pierre Bayle 1696, followed during the 19th century by the development of national biographies in Europe, and the foundation of the English Dictionary of National Biography 1882 and the Dictionary of American Biography 1928.
In the US, notable biographers include William Manchester (John F Kennedy and Douglas MacArthur), Leon Edel (Henry James), and Joseph Lash (Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and Helen Keller).
ETYM as. lîf; akin to Dutch lijf body, German leib body, Mid. High Germ. lîp life, body, Old High Germ. lîb life, Icel. lîf, life, body, Swed. lif, Dan. liv, and Eng. live, v. Related to Live, Alive.
(Irregular plural: lives).
1. A characteristic state or mode of living.
2. The course of existence of an individual; the actions and events that occur in living.
3. The experience of living; the course of human events and activities; SYN. living.
4. The organic phenomenon that distinguishes living organisms from nonliving ones.
5. The period between birth and the present time.
6. The period from the present until death.
7. The period during which something is functional (as between birth and death); SYN. lifetime, lifespan.
8. Living things collectively.
9. A motive for living.
10. A living person.
The ability to grow, reproduce, and respond to such stimuli as light, heat, and sound. It is thought that life on Earth began about 4 billion years ago. Over time, life has evolved from primitive single-celled organisms to complex multicellular ones. The earliest fossil evidence of life is threadlike chains of cells discovered in 1980 in deposits in nw Australia that have been dated as 3.5 billion years old.
Life originated in the primitive oceans. The original atmosphere, 4,000 million years ago, consisted of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. It has been shown in the laboratory that more complex organic molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides, can be produced from these ingredients by passing electric sparks through a mixture. It has been suggested that lightning was extremely common in the early atmosphere, and that this combination of conditions could have resulted in the oceans becoming rich in organic molecules, the so-called “primeval soup”. These molecules may then have organised into clusters capable of reproducing and of developing eventually into simple cells.
Once the atmosphere changed to its present composition, life could only be created by living organisms (a process called biogenesis).
It has also been suggested that life could have reached Earth from elsewhere in the universe in the form of complex organic molecules present in meteors or comets. This argument does not really offer an alternative explanation of the origins of life, however, as these primitive life forms must themselves have been created by a similar process.
Us weekly magazine of photo journalism, which recorded us and world events pictorially from 1936–72, 1978-. It was founded by Henry Luce, owner of Time Inc., who bought the title of an older magazine. It ceased publication in 1972, although a few “Special Report” issues occasionally appeared after that date. In 1978 the magazine was revived, issued monthly, focusing more on personalities than on current news.
vita / vaɪtə /
Množina reči vita je vitas.
1. A brief biographical sketch
2. Curriculum Vitae