ETYM Latin alimentum, from alere to nourish; akin to Goth. alan to grow, Icel. ala to nourish: cf. French aliment. Related to Old. That which nourishes; food; nutriment; anything which feeds or adds to a substance in natural growth. Hence: The necessaries of life generally: sustenance; means of support. Food; nourishment.
ETYM Latin alimonia, alimonium, nourishment, sustenance, from alere to nourish. An allowance for maintenance, as after a divorce. Court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated | SYN: maintenance. In the US, money allowance given by court order to a former spouse after separation or divorce. The right has been extended to relationships outside marriage and is colloquially termed palimony. Alimony is separate and distinct from court orders for child support.
An electronic module consisting of chips and other electronic components mounted on a flat, rigid substrate on which conductive paths are laid between the components. A personal computer contains a main board, called the motherboard, which usually has the microprocessor on it and slots into which other, smaller boards, called cards or adapters, can be plugged to expand the functionality of the main system, allowing connections to monitors, disk drives, or a network. See also adapter, card (definition 1;), motherboard.
ETYM AS. breád; akin to OFries. brâd, OS. brôd, Dutch brood, German brod, brot, Icel. brauth, Swed. and Dan. bröd. The root is probably that of Eng. brew. Related to Brew. (Homonym: bred). Food made from dough of flour or meal and usually raised with yeast or baking powder and then baked | SYN: breadstuff, staff of life. Food baked from a kneaded dough or batter made with ground cereals, usually wheat, and water; many other ingredients may be added. The dough may be unleavened or raised (usually with yeast). Bread has been a staple of human diet in many civilizations as long as agriculture has been practiced, and some hunter-gatherer peoples made it from crushed acorns or beech nuts. Potato, banana, and cassava bread are among some local varieties, but most breads are made from fermented cereals which form glutens when mixed with water. The earliest bread was unleavened and was made from a mixture of flour and water and dried in the sun on flat stones. Leavened bread was first made in the ancient Near East and Egypt in brick ovens similar to ceramic kilns. The yeast creates gas, making the dough rise. Traditionally bread has been made from whole grains: wheat, barley, rye, and oats, ground into a meal which varied in quality. Modern manufacturing processes have changed this to optimize the profit and shorten the manufacturing time. Fermentation is speeded up using ascorbic acid and potassium bromide with fast-acting flour improvers. White bread was developed by the end of the 19th century. Roller-milling, which removed wheat germ, satisfied consumer demand for finer flour, but it removed important fiber and nutrient content at the same time. Today, some of the nutrients removed in the modern processing of bread, such as vitamins, are synthetically replaced.
1 > Something to eat
2 > (plural) Food
A rapid, cutting motion, as with the hand.
ETYM Chin chou.
1 > Breed of thick-coated medium-sized dogs with fluffy curled tails and distinctive blue-black tongues; believed to have originated in north China | SYN: chow chow.
2 > Informal terms for a meal | SYN: chuck, eats, grub.
1 > Adjustable jaws center workpiece in a lathe or center tool in a drill.
2 > The part of a forequarter from the neck to the ribs and including the shoulder blade.
1 > The common people
2 > A pasture subject to common use | SYN: common land.
ETYM Old Fren. fourage, French fourrage, from forre, fuerre, fodder, straw, French feurre, from Late Lat. foderum, fodrum, of German or Scand, origin; cf. Old High Germ. fuotar, German futter. Related to Fodder food, and cf. Foray.
1 > The act of foraging; searching for provisions.
2 > Food of any kind for animals, especially for horses and cattle, as grass, pasture, hay, corn, oats.
ETYM French, from Latin coquina kitchen, from coquere to cook. Related to Kitchen.
(French) “kitchen”; cooking; feeding arrangements. cuisine minceur (French) “cooking for slimness”; health- and figure-conscious variant of nouvelle cuisine.
1 > The kitchen.
2 > Manner or art of cooking.
3 > The food or meals resulting from careful preparation.
ETYM Cup + board. A small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage | SYN: closet.
1 > The act of restricting one's food intake (or one's intake of particular foods) | SYN: dieting.
2 > The usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal).
3 > A prescribed selection of foods.
The range of foods eaten by an animal, also a particular selection of food, or the overall intake and selection of food for a particular person or people. The basic components of any diet are a group of chemicals: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Different animals require these substances in different proportions, but the necessity of finding and processing an appropriate diet is a very basic drive in animal evolution. For instance, all guts are adapted for digesting and absorbing food, but different guts have adapted to cope with particular diets.
For humans, an adequate diet is one that fulfills the body's nutritional requirements and gives an energy intake proportional to the person's activity level (the average daily requirement is 2;,400 calories for men, less for women, more for active children). In the Third World and in famine or poverty areas some 450 million people in the world subsist on fewer than 1;,500 calories per day, whereas in the developed countries the average daily intake is 3;,300 calories.
Dietary requirements may vary over the life span of an organism, according to whether it is growing, reproducing, highly active, or approaching death. For instance, increased carbohydrate for additional energy, or increased minerals, may be necessary during periods of growth.
A special diet may be recommended for medical reasons, to balance, limit, or increase certain nutrients; undertaken to lose weight, by a reduction in calorie intake or selection of specific foods; or observed on religious, moral, or emotional grounds.
In the UK, some Ł80 million a year (1993) is spent on slimming products and another Ł 5.5; million on slimming magazines. In the US, the slimming industry totaled $40 billion a year.
Something to eat; food — usually used in plural
ETYM AS. faru journey, from faran. Related to Fare.
1 > A paying (taxi) passenger.
2 > The food and drink that are regularly consumed.
3 > The sum charged for riding in a public conveyance.
Food for domestic livestock | SYN: provender. See news feed.
ETYM Old Eng. fode, AS. fôda.
Any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue | SYN: nutrient.
Anything eaten by human beings and other animals to sustain life and health. The building blocks of food are nutrients, and humans can utilize the following nutrients: carbohydrates, as starches found in bread, potatoes, and pasta; as simple sugars in sucrose and honey; as fibers in cereals, fruit, and vegetables; proteins as from nuts, fish, meat, eggs, milk, and some vegetables; fats as found in most animal products (meat, lard, dairy products, fish), also in margarine, nuts and seeds, olives, and edible oils; vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods, except for vitamin B12, which is mainly found in animal foods; minerals are found in a wide variety of foods; good sources of calcium are milk and broccoli, for example; iodine from seafood; iron from liver and green vegetables; water is ubiquitous in nature; alcohol is found in fermented distilled beverages, from more than 40% in liquor to 0 > 01% in low-alcohol beers.
Food is needed both for energy, measured in calories or kilojoules, and nutrients, which are converted to body tissues. Some nutrients, such as fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol, provide mainly energy; other nutrients are important in other ways; for example, fiber is an aid to metabolism. Proteins provide energy and are necessary for building cell and tissue structure.
A substance that can be used or prepared for use as food | SYN: food product.
ETYM AS. grist, from grindan. Related to Grind. Grain intended to be or that has been ground.
ETYM Old Eng. mete, AS. mete; akin to OS. mat, meti, Dutch met hashed meat, German mettwurst sausage, Old High Germ. maz food, Icel. matr, Swed. mat, Dan. mad, Goth. mats. Related to Mast fruit, Mush.
Flesh of animals taken as food, in Western countries chiefly from domesticated herds of cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry. Major exporters include Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the US, and Denmark (chiefly bacon). The practice of cooking meat is at least 600,000 years old. More than 40% of the world's grain is now fed to animals.
Animals have been hunted for meat since the beginnings of human society. The domestication of animals for meat began during the Neolithic era in the Middle East about 10,000 BC.
Meat is wasteful in production (the same area of grazing land would produce far greater food value in cereal crops). The consumption of meat in 1989 was 111 kg/244 lb per person in the US, 68 kg/150 lb in the UK, 30 kg/66 lb in Japan, 6; kg/13 lb in Nigeria, and 1; kg/ 2.2; lb in India. Research suggests that, in a healthy diet, consumption of meat (especially with a high fat content) should not exceed the Japanese level.
Meat substitutes are textured vegetable protein (TVP), usually soy-based and extruded in fibers in the same way as plastics.
Grazing lands take up more than 1.4; billion acres/ 3;,000 million hectares and produce about 140 million tons of meat per year.
The flesh of animals (including fishes and birds and snails) used as food.
ETYM Old Eng. mes, Old Fren. mets, Late Lat. missum, p. p. of mittere to put, place (e.g., on the table), Latin mittere to send. Related to Mission, Mass religious service.
(Irregular plural: messes).
1 > A state of confusion and disorderliness | SYN: messiness, muss, mussiness.
2 > A (large) military dining room where service personnel eat or relax | SYN: mess hall.
3 > A meal eaten by service personnel.
4 > Soft semiliquid food.
ETYM Cf. Old Fren. norrissement.
1 > The act of nourishing, or the state of being nourished; nutrition.
2 > That which serves to nourish; nutriment; food.
ETYM Latin nutrimentum, from nutrire to nourish. Related to Nourish. A source of nourishment | SYN: nourishment, sustenance, aliment, alimentation, victuals.
ETYM Cf. French nutrition. Related to Nutritious. The strategy adopted by an organism to obtain the chemicals it needs to live, grow, and reproduce. Also, the science of food, and its effect on human and animal life, health, and disease. Nutrition involves the study of the basic nutrients required to sustain life, their bioavailability in foods and overall diet, and the effects upon them of cooking and storage. It is also concerned with dietary deficiency diseases. There are six classes of nutrients: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Water. Water is involved in nearly every body process. Animals and humans will succumb to water deprivation sooner than to starvation. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The major groups are starches, sugars, and cellulose and related material (or “roughage”). The prime function of the carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body; they also serve as efficient sources of glucose, which the body requires for brain functioning, utilisation of foods, maintenance of body temperature. Roughage includes the stiff structural materials of vegetables, fruits, and cereal products. Proteins. Proteins are made up of smaller units, amino acids. The primary function of dietary protein is to provide the amino acids required for growth and maintenance of body tissues. Both vegetable and animal foods are protein sources. Fats. Fats serve as concentrated sources of energy, and protect vital organs such as the kidneys and skeleton. Saturated fats derive primarily from animal sources; unsaturated fats from vegetable sources such as nuts and seeds. Vitamins. Vitamins are essential for normal growth, and are either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, essential to the maintenance of mucous membranes, particularly the conjunctiva of the eyes; D, important to the absorption of calcium; E, an antioxidant; and K, which aids blood clotting. Water-soluble vitamins are the B complex, essential to metabolic reactions, and C, for maintaining connective tissue. Minerals. Minerals are vital to normal development; calcium and iron are particularly important as they are required in relatively large amounts. Minerals required by the body in trace amounts include chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. The organic process by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance.
ETYM Cf. French subsistance, Latin subsistentia.
1 > A means of surviving.
2 > Minimal (or marginal) resources for subsisting.
3 > The state of existing in reality; having substance.
ETYM Old Fren. sustenance, sostenance, soustenance: cf. Latin sustenentia endurance. Related to Sustain. The act of sustaining | SYN: sustentation, sustainment, maintenance, upkeep.
ETYM French, from Latin tabula a board, tablet, a painting. Related to Tabular, Taffrail, Tavern.
1 > A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top supported by one or more vertical legs.
2 > A piece of furniture with tableware for a meal laid out on it.
3 > A set of data arranged in rows and columns | SYN: tabular array.
4 > A company of people assembled at a table for a meal or game.
ETYM French viande meat, food, Late Lat. vianda, vivanda, vivenda, properly, things to live on, from Latin vivere to live; akin to vivus living. Related to Vivid, Victualis. A choice or delicious dish.
ETYM as. masc, max, maescre; akin to Dutch maas, masche, Old High Germ. masca, Icel. möskvi; cf. Lith. mazgas a knot, megsti to weave nets, to knot.
1 > The act of interlocking or meshing | SYN: meshing, interlock, interlocking.
2 > The number of opening per inch of a screen; measures size of particles; or.
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