Meka, testasta tvar, supstanca koja posle upotrebe, otvrdnjava; služi za pričvršćivanje čvrstih tela (npr. prozorskih okana). (nem.)
cement / səment /
ETYM Old Fren. cement, ciment, French ciment, from Latin caementum a rough, unhewn stone, pieces or chips of marble, from which mortar was made, contr. from caedimentum, from caedere to cut, prob. akin to scindere to cleave, and to Eng. shed.
Any bonding agent used to unite particles in a single mass or to cause one surface to adhere to another. Portland cement is a powder obtained from burning together a mixture of lime (or chalk) and clay, and when mixed with water and sand or gravel, turns into mortar or concrete.
In geology, a chemically precipitated material such as carbonate that occupies the interstices of clastic rocks.
The term “cement” covers a variety of materials, such as fluxes and pastes, and also bituminous products obtained from tar. In 1824 English bricklayer Joseph Aspdin (1779–1855) created and patented the first Portland cement, so named because its color in the hardened state resembled that of Portland stone, a limestone used in building.
1. A building material that is a powder made of a mixture of calcined limestone and clay; used with water and sand or gravel to make concrete and mortar.
2. Any of various materials used by dentists to fill cavities in teeth.
3. Concrete; pavement is sometimes referred to as cement.
4. Something that hardens to act as adhesive material.
Collective name for a group of badgers.
lute / luːt /
Luting, mixture of cement and clay used to seal joints in pipes, etc.(Homonym: loot).
1. A plucked instrument having a pear-shaped body, a usually bent neck, and a fretted fingerboard.
2. A substance for packing a joint or coating a porous surface to make it impervious to gas or liquid; SYN. luting.
Member of a family of stringed musical instruments of the 14th–18th century, including the mandore, theorbo, and chitarrone. Lutes are pear-shaped with up to seven courses of strings (single or double), plucked with the fingers. Music for lutes is written in special notation called tablature and chords are played simultaneously, not arpeggiated as for guitar. Modern lutenists include Julian Bream and Anthony Rooley (1944–).
Members of the lute family were used both as solo instruments and for vocal accompaniment, and were often played in addition to, or instead of, keyboard instruments in larger ensembles and in opera.
The notation of lute music, tablature, uses a stave made up of six lines rather than the normal five and letters rather than notes. Of the 13 or 14 strings on a lute, six can be held down against the keyboard like a guitar, whilst the remainder are bass notes which are played by the thumb. The six lines on the stave represent the six strings. The letters of the alphabet indicate which fret the string must be held down against. The bass notes are shown by letters and numbers, and curved lines across the top of the stave are used to represent the rhythm.
putty / pʌti /
A dough-like mixture of whiting and boiled linseed oil; used especially to patch woodwork or secure panes of glass.
Large-mouthed arctic whale; SYN. bowhead whale, Greenland whale, Balaena mysticetus.
Arctic whale Balaena mysticetus with strongly curving upper jawbones supporting the plates of baleen with which it sifts planktonic crustaceans from the water. Averaging 15 m/50 ft long and 90 metric tons/100 tons in weight, these slow-moving, placid whales were once extremely common, but by the 17th century were already becoming scarce through hunting. Only an estimated 3,000 remain, and continued hunting by the Inuit may result in extinction.
Greenland whale. bow-head
ca'ing whale / |ca'ing| ˈweɪl /
caa'ing whale / |caa'ing| ˈweɪl /
Kind of dolphin, also called blackfish or pilot-whale.
whale / weɪl /
ETYM Old Eng. whal, AS. hwael; akin to Dutch walvisch, German wal, walfisch, Old High Germ. wal, Icel. hvalr, Dan. and Swed. hval, hvalfisk. Related to Narwhal, Walrus.
(Homonym: wail, wale).
Any of the larger cetacean mammals having a streamlined body and breathing through a blowhole on the head.
Any marine mammal of the order Cetacea, The only mammals to have adapted to living entirely in water, they have front limbs modified into flippers and no externally visible traces of hind limbs. They have horizontal tail flukes. When they surface to breathe, the hot air they breathe out condenses to form a “spout” through the blowhole (single or double nostrils) in the top of the head. Whales are intelligent and have a complex communication system, known as “songs”. They occur in all seas of the world.
The order is divided into two groups: the toothed whales (Odontoceti) and the baleen whales (Mysticeti). Toothed whales are predators, feeding on fish and squid. They include dolphins and porpoises, along with large forms such as sperm whales. The largest whales are the baleen whales, with plates of modified mucous membrane called baleen (whalebone) in the mouth; these strain the food from the water, mainly microscpic plankton. Baleen whales include the finback and right whales, and the blue whale, the largest animal that has ever lived, of length up to 30 m/100 ft.
Whales have been hunted for hundreds of years (see whaling); today they are close to extinction. Whale-watching, as an alternative economic use to whaling, generated $121 million worldwide in 1994.
The whale's skin is hairless. Below the skin is a thick layer of blubber, fatty tissue. Movement is by the tail and flukes. They typically give birth to a single young at a time. The young are born alive, after a gestation period of 10-12 months. Most whales are inoffensive creatures and swim in herds; they have been known to follow a confused leader onto a beach. Once stranded on shore they die by suffocation, their own weight crushing the lungs.
Toothed whales comprise 66 species, of which the largest is the sperm whale Physeter catodon (see spermaceti).
The killer whale is a large member of the dolphin family (Delphinidae), and is often exhibited in oceanaria. Killer whales in the wild have 8–15 special calls, and each family group, or “pod”, has its own particular dialect: they are the first mammals known to have dialects in the same way as human language.
Comprise 10 species, comprising three families: rorquals, right whales, and gray whales.
The common rorqual Balaenoptera physalas is slate-colored, and not quite so large.
Right whales of the family Ballaenidae have a thick body and an enormous head. They are regarded by whalers as the “right” whale to exploit since they swim slowly and are relatively easy to catch. The Northern right whale is close to extinction—numbers have fallen to an estimated 350.
The blue whale Sibaldus musculus, one of the finback whales (or rorquals), is 31 m/100 ft long, and weighs over 100 metric tons. It is the largest animal ever to inhabit the planet. It feeds on plankton, strained through its whalebone “plates”.
The bottlenosed whale occasionally visits British waters. The white whale is found mostly off Labrador and Canada. Of the whalebone or right whales the most important formerly were the Greenland whale (Balaena mysticetus) and the Biscayan whale or nordkaper (Eubalaena glacialis).
See also bowhead whale.
A third order, the Archeoceti, is known only from fossils. Paleontologists from the US and Pakistan discovered 1993 a fossil whale with legs. The fossil, called Ambulocetus, is 50 million years old and about the size of a male sealion. It was able to walk on land but spent most of its time at sea.