/ maʊntɪnɪərɪŋ /
Art and practice of mountain climbing. For major peaks of the Himalayas it was formerly thought necessary to have elaborate support from Sherpas (local people), fixed ropes, and oxygen at high altitudes (siege-style climbing). In the 1980s the Alpine style was introduced. This dispenses with these aids, and relies on human ability to adapt, Sherpa-style, to high altitude.
In 1854 Wetterhorn, Switzerland, was climbed by Alfred Wills, thereby founding the sport; 1865 Matterhorn, Switzerland–Italy, by Edward Whymper; 1897 Aconcagua, Argentina, by Zurbriggen; 1938 Eiger (north face), Switzerland, by Heinrich Harrer; 1953 Everest, Nepal–Tibet, by Edmund Hillary and Norgay Tenzing; 1981 Kongur, China, by Chris Bonington.