ETYM AS. balca beam, ridge; akin to Icel. bâlkr partition, bjâlki beam, OS. balko, German balken; cf. Gael. balc ridge of earth between two furrows. Related to Balcony, Balk, Bulk.
(Baseball) An illegal pitching motion while runners are on base.
ETYM Old Eng. barre, French barre, from Late Lat. barra, W. bar the branch of a tree, bar, baren branch, Gael. and Irish barra bar.
1. A rigid piece of metal.
2. A rod of metal used to obstruct openings.
3. (Usually in the plural) Jail.
4. A counter where one can purchase food or drink.
5. A submerged (or partly submerged) ridge in a river or along a shore.
6. (Law) A railing that encloses the part of the courtroom where the the judges and lawyers sit and the case is tried.
7. A unit of pressure equal to a million dynes per square centimeter.
A unit of pressure equal to 0.99 atmospheres or 14.233 psi.
ETYM Old Eng. barrere, barere, French barričre, from barre bar. Related to Bar.
1. A structure or object that impedes free movement.
2. Any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective; SYN. roadblock.
3. Anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access.
ETYM Old Eng. chek, Old Fren. eschec, French échec, a stop, hindrance, orig. check in the game of chess, pl. échecs chess, through AR., from Pers. shâh king. Related to Shah, Checkmate, Chess, Checker.
1. A written order directing a bank to pay money; SYN. bank check, cheque.
2. The bill in a restaurant; SYN. chit, tab.
3. Obstructing an opponent in ice hockey.
4. The act of inspecting or verifying; SYN. checkout, check-out procedure.
ETYM Old Eng. clogge clog, Scot. clag, a clot, to to obstruct, cover with mud or anything adhesive; prob. of the same origin as Eng. clay.
1. Any object that acts as a hindrance or obstruction.
2. Footwear usually with wooden soles; SYN. geta, patten, sabot.
1. A barrier constructed to contain the flow or water or to keep out the sea; SYN. dike, dyke, levee.
2. Female parent of an animal especially domestic livestock.
Structure built to hold back water in order to prevent flooding, to provide water for irrigation and storage, and to provide hydroelectric power. The biggest dams are of the earth- and rock-fill type, also called embankment dams. Early dams in Britain, built before about 1800, had a core made from puddled clay (clay which has been mixed with water to make it impermeable). Such dams are generally built on broad valley sites. Deep, narrow gorges dictate a concrete dam, where the strength of reinforced concrete can withstand the water pressures involved.
A valuable development in arid regions, as in parts of Brazil, is the underground dam, where water is stored on a solid rock base, with a wall to ground level, so avoiding rapid evaporation. Many concrete dams are triangular in cross section, with their vertical face pointing upstream. Their sheer weight holds them in position, and they are called gravity dams. They are no longer favored for very large dams, however, as they are expensive and time-consuming to build. Other concrete dams are built in the shape of an arch, with the curve facing upstream: the arch dam derives its strength from the arch shape, just as an arch bridge does, and has been widely used in the 20th century. They require less construction material than other dams but are the strongest type.
Buttress dams are used when economy of construction is important or foundation conditions preclude any other type. The upstream portion of a buttress dam may comprise series of cantilevers, slabs, arches or domes supported from the back by a line of buttresses. They are usually made from reinforced and prestressed concrete.
Earth dams have a watertight core wall, formerly made of puddle clay but nowadays constructed of concrete. Their construction is very economical even for very large structures. Rock-fill dams are a variant of the earth dam in which dumped rock takes the place of compacted earth fill.
Major dams include: Rogun (Tajikistan), the world's highest at 335 m/1,099 ft; New Cornelia Tailings (US), the world's biggest in volume, 209 million cu m/7.4 billion cu ft; Owen Falls (Uganda), the world's largest reservoir capacity, 204.8 billion cu m/7.2 trillion cu ft; and Itaipu (Brazil/Paraguay), the world's most powerful, producing 12,700 megawatts of electricity. The Three Gorges Dam on the Chang Jiang was officially inaugurated December 1994.
Although dams can service huge irrigation schemes and are a reliable and cheap source of power, they cause many environmental problems such as the forcible removal of local communities, waterlogging and salinization of land in the area, and loss of habitat. For example, the world's biggest hydroelectric dam and irrigation project which is currently under construction on the Narmada river, central India, has attracted huge protests as it will displace up to a million people and submerge large areas of forest and farmland. Similarly, the Kansa dam in Zimbabwe flooded habitat used by the rhinoceros, one of the world's most endangered mammals.
There is also controversy as to the effectiveness of large dams as the reservoirs tend to fill with silt from upstream. This leads to a gradual reduction in reservoir depth and hence the volume of water held back by the dam which in turn reduces the power delivered by the hydroelectric turbines.
ETYM French délai, from Old Fren. deleer to delay, or from Latin dilatum, which, though really from a different root, is used in Latin only as a p. p. neut. of differre to carry apart, defer, delay. Related to Tolerate, Differ, Delay.
1. The act of delaying; SYN. holdup, detention.
2. Time during which some action is awaited; SYN. hold, time lag, postponement, wait.
dike / daɪk /
Množina reči dike je dikes.
ETYM Old Eng. dic, dike, diche, ditch, AS. dîc dike, ditch.
1. A ditch; a channel for water made by digging.
2. An embankment to prevent flooding; a levee.
3. A wall of turf or stone.
1. The act of dragging (pulling with force).
2. The phenomenon of resistance to motion through a fluid; SYN. retarding force.
Resistance to motion a body experiences when passing through a fluid—gas or liquid. The aerodynamic drag aircraft experience when traveling through the air represents a great waste of power, so they must be carefully shaped, or streamlined, to reduce drag to a minimum. Automobiles benefit from streamlining, and aerodynamic drag is used to slow down spacecraft returning from space. Boats traveling through water experience hydrodynamic drag on their hulls, and the fastest vessels are hydrofoils, whose hulls lift out of the water while cruising.
In earth science, a sheet of igneous rock created by the intrusion of magma (molten rock) across layers of pre-existing rock. (By contrast, a sill is intruded between layers of rock.) It may form a ridge when exposed on the surface if it is more resistant than the rock into which it intruded. A dyke is also a human-made embankment built along a coastline (for example, in the Netherlands) to prevent the flooding of lowland coastal regions.
ETYM Cf. Old Fren. encombrance. Related to Incumbrance.
A charge against property (as a lien or mortgage); SYN. incumbrance.
In law, a right or interest in land, for example a mortgage, lease, restrictive covenant, or right of way, which benefits someone other than the owner of the land.
1. Something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress; SYN. deterrent, impediment, handicap.
2. Something that impedes or is burdensome; SYN. hitch, preventive, preventative, encumbrance, incumbrance, interference.
3. The act of hindering or obstructing or impeding; SYN. interference, interfering.
holdback / hoʊldbæk /
Množina reči holdback je holdbacks.
1. Something that retains or restrains
2. The act of holding back
3. Something held back
ETYM French, from Latin obstaculum, from obstare to withstand, oppose; ob (see Ob-) + stare to stand. Related to Stand. and cf. Oust.
1. An object that stands in the way (and must be removed or surmounted or circumvented).
2. Something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted; SYN. obstruction.
ETYM Old Fren. restraincte, from restrainct, French restreint, p. p. of restraindre, restrendre. Related to Restrain.
1. A device that holds someone or something back from action; SYN. constraint.
2. Discipline in personal and social activities; SYN. control.
3. The act of restraining.
1. Continuing or remaining in a place; SYN. visit, sojourn, rest, trip.
2. A thin strip of metal or bone that is used to stiffen a garment (e.g. a corset).
3. A judicial order forbidding some action until an event occurs or the order is lifted
stumbling block / ˈstʌmbl̩ɪŋ ˈblɑːk /
Množina reči stumbling block je stumbling blocks.
1. An obstacle to progress
2. An impediment to belief or understanding; perplexity
3. Any obstacle or impediment. stumbling-block, pons asinorum.