ETYM Old Eng. chirche, chireche, cherche, Scot. kirk, from AS. circe, cyrice; akin to Dutch kerk, Icel. kirkja, Swed. kyrka.
1. A group of Christians; any group professing Christian doctrine or belief; SYN. Christian church, Christianity.
2. A building used for public (especially Christian) worship; SYN. church building.
Building designed as a Christian place of worship; also the Christian community generally, or a subdivision or denomination of it, such as the Church of England. Churches were first built in the 3rd century, when persecution ceased under the Holy Roman emperor Constantine.
The original church design was based on the Roman basilica, with a central nave, aisles either side, and an apse at one end. Many Western churches are built on an east–west axis with an altar at the east end, facing toward Jerusalem.
The church in the sense of the whole body of Christians is taken to include both those who are alive (the church militant) and those who have died and are in heaven (the church triumphant).
confession / kənfeʃn̩ /
Množina reči confession je confessions.
In religion, the confession of sins practiced in Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and most Far Eastern Christian churches, and since the early 19th century revived in Anglican and Lutheran churches. The Lateran Council of 1215 made auricular confession (self-accusation by the penitent to a priest, who in Catholic doctrine is divinely invested with authority to give absolution) obligatory once a year.
Both John the Baptist's converts and the early Christian church practiced public confession. The Roman Catholic penitent in recent times has always confessed alone to the priest in a confessional box, but from 1977 such individual confession might be preceded by group discussion, or the confession itself might be made openly by members of the group.
Sinonimi: faith · organized religion · religious belief
ETYM French, from Latin religio; cf. religens pious, revering the gods, Greek alegein to heed, have a care. Related to Neglect.
1. A strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny; SYN. faith, religious belief.
2. Institution to express belief in a divine power; SYN. faith.
Code of belief or philosophy that often involves the worship of a God or gods. Belief in a supernatural power is not essential (absent in, for example, Buddhism and Confucianism), but faithful adherence is usually considered to be rewarded; for example, by escape from human existence (Buddhism), by a future existence (Christianity, Islam), or by worldly benefit (Soka Gakkai Buddhism). Among the chief religions are.
Ancient and pantheist religions of Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Oriental Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Parseeism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shinto.
“religions of a book” Judaism, Christianity (the principal divisions are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant), and Islam (the principal divisions are Sunni and Shiite).
Combined derivation these include Bahaism, the Unification Church, and Mormonism.
Comparative religion studies the various faiths impartially, but often with the hope of finding common ground, to solve the practical problems of competing claims of unique truth or inspiration. The earliest known attempt at a philosophy of religious beliefs is contained in fragments written by Xenophanes in Greece 6th century BC, and later Herodotus and Aristotle contributed to the study. In 17th-century China, Jesuit theologians conducted comparative studies. Towards the end of the 18th century, English missionary schools in Calcutta compared the Bible with sacred Indian texts. The work of Charles Darwin in natural history and the growth of anthropology stimulated fresh investigation of religious beliefs; work by the Sanskrit scholar Max Müller (1823–1900), the Scottish anthropologist James Frazer, the German sociologist Max Weber, and the Romanian scholar Mircea Eliade has formed the basis for modern comparative religion.
Other related studies are the psychology of religion, which examines human states of mind under religious influence, for example, ecstasy, diabolic possession, and faith healing, and the possible causal factors of; and the philosophy of religion, which coincides to a large extent with natural theology.