In sociology, the main grouping of social stratification in industrial societies, based primarily on economic and occupational factors, but also referring to people's style of living or sense of group identity. Within the social sciences, class has been used both as a descriptive category and as the basis of theories about industrial society. Theories of class may see such social divisions either as a source of social stability (Emile Durkheim) or social conflict (Karl Marx). In the US, little acknowledgment is given to the notion of class. If asked, most Americans identify themselves as middle class, although social scientists use measurements of education level, income, and occupation to ascribe social strata.
ETYM AS. craeft strength, skill, art, cunning; akin to OS., German, Swed., and Dan. kraft strength, Dutch kracht, Icel. kraptr; perh. originally, a drawing together, stretching, from the root of Eng. cramp.
1. A vehicle designed for navigation in or on water or air or through outer space.
2. A particular kind of skilled work; SYN. trade.
3. Skill in an occupation or trade; SYN. craftsmanship, workmanship.
4. Shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception; SYN. craftiness, cunning, foxiness, guile, slyness, wiliness.
ETYM Old Fren. estat, French état, Latin status, from stare to stand. Related to Stand, State.
(medieval history) In European history, an order of society that enjoyed a specified share in government. In medieval theory, there were usually three estates—the nobility, the clergy, and the commons—with the functions of, respectively, defending society from foreign aggression and internal disorder, attending to its spiritual needs, and working to produce the base with which to support the other two orders.
When parliaments and representative assemblies developed from the 13th century, their organization reflected this theory, with separate houses for the nobility, the commons (usually burghers and gentry), and the clergy. The fourth estate is the press; the term was coined in the 18th century by the British politician Edmund Burke.
1. A major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights; SYN. estate of the realm.
2. All of one's assets (whether real or personal property) and liabilities.
3. Extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use; SYN. land, landed estate, acres, demesne.
ETYM Old Eng. ordre, French ordre, from Latin ordo, ordinis. Related to Ordain, Ordinal.
In biological classification, a group of related families. For example, the horse, rhinoceros, and tapir families are grouped in the order Perissodactyla, the odd-toed ungulates, because they all have either one or three toes on each foot. The names of orders are not shown in italic (unlike genus and species names) and by convention they have the ending “-formes” in birds and fish; “-a” in mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and other animals; and “-ales” in fungi and plants. Related orders are grouped together in a class.
1. Putting in order; SYN. ordering.
2. A degree in a continuum of size or quantity; SYN. order of magnitude.
3. Established customary state esp. of society.
4. A commercial document used to request someone to supply something in return for payment; SYN. purchase order.
5. A body of rules followed by an assembly; SYN. rules of order, parliamentary law, parliamentary procedure.
6. (Often plural) A command given by a superior (e.g., a military or law enforcement officer) that must be obeyed.
7. (Biology) Taxonomic group containing one or more families.
standing / stændɪŋ /
Množina reči standing je standings.
1. Social or financial or professional status or reputation:
2. The act of assuming or maintaining an erect upright position.